|Scientific Name:||Trachypithecus phayrei|
|Species Authority:||(Blyth, 1847)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy used here follows Groves (2001). The three named subspecies are morphologically well differentiated, but the association of them with available molecular sequences (Roos 2004) needs further investigation. Roos (2004) reported that “grey langurs” from northern Viet Nam were phylogenetically closer to T. francoisi than to other members of the T. phayrei group, and proposed that Viet Namese populations take the name T. phayrei and that others be considered specifically distinct. However, it is impossible for Viet Namese populations to take the name T. phayrei, as the type locality lies in Myanmar. On the basis of range and known morphology it is most likely that Roos’ Viet Namese populations represent T. p. shanicus, suggesting that perhaps this subspecies is specifically distinct (R.J. Timmins pers. comm.)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bleisch, B., Brockelman, W., Timmins, R.J., Nadler, T., Thun, S., Das, J. & Yongcheng, L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Endangered as it is believed to have undergone a decline of more than 50% over the last three generations (36 years, given a generation length of 12 years), due to a combination of habitat loss and hunting.
|Range Description:||This specis occurs in eastern Bangladesh, southwestern China (southern, western and central Yunnan), northeastern India (Assam, Mizoram, and Tripura), Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand (north of the peninsular zone) and northern Viet Nam (Groves 2001).
T. p. phayrei
Occurs in Bangladesh, northeastern India (Assam, Mizoram, and Tripura), and western Myanmar. Found from Pegu north through Arakan to Tripura, southern Assam and eastern Bangladesh (Groves 2001).
T. p. crepuscula
Occurs in southwestern China (central, southern and southwestern Yunnan, with the Salween River as its west boundary), Lao PDR, Myanmar (north of the peninsular zone and south of the range of T. p. phayrei), Thailand (north of the peninsular zone) and northern Viet Nam. Found from Raheng (central Thailand) and the Mae Ping rapids (northwest Thailand) north to Xishuanbanna (Yunnan), east to southwestern Lao PDR and northern Viet Nam, and west to the coast of the Bay of Bengal (Groves 2001).
T. p. shanicus
Occurs in southwestern China (western Yunnan with the Salween River as the boundary) and northern and eastern Myanmar. Found in the northern Shan States and neighbouring dry zone of northern Myanmar, into Yunnan in the Yingjiang-Namting River and Tunchong-Homushu Pass Districts (Groves 2001).
Native:Bangladesh; China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In India and Bangladesh, populations are small and isolated, though locally common in many places (Choudhury 2001; Molur et al. 2003). In Lao PDR the species is localized, and in the northern parts of its range generally scarce, due both to high hunting pressure and a high level of habitat fragmentation. In the southern parts of its range in Lao PDR the species is more common, although still among the scarcest of the diurnal primates (R.Timmins pers. comm.). In Viet Nam the species is rare and now very localized (R. Timmins pers. comm.). In the last ten years there are records only from a handful of areas (Nadler et al. 2004). In Thailand, there are good populations in Nam Nao National Park and Phukhio Wildlife Sanctuary, where they had the highest densities at 3.4 groups/km2 and 23-38 individuals/km2 (Borries et al. 2002), but much of northern Thailand has been hunted out. There are also good populations in the Western Forest complex (W. Brockelmann pers. comm.). There is little information available concerning the species’ status in Myanmar (R. Timmins pers. comm.). In China, healthy populations of T. p. shanicus survive mainly in Gaoligongshan Nature Reserve and Tongbiguan Nature Reserve, and healthy populations of T. p. crepuscula survive mainly in Nangunhe Nature Reserve, Ailaoshan Nature Reserve, Wuliangshan Nature Reserve, Daxueshan Nature Reserve, Huanlianshan Nature Reserve, and Xishuanbanna Nature Reserve (Zhang et al. 2002). Overall, the picture is one of a serious ongoing decline globally.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species prefers primary and secondary evergreen and semi-evergreen forest, mixed moist deciduous forest, but is also found in bamboo-dominated areas, light woodlands, and near tea plantations. In some parts of the range, such as Lao PDR, it also occurs in forest on limestone (R. Timmins pers. comm.; Nadler et al. 2004). This is a predominantly arboreal, diurnal, and folivorous species (Molur et al. 2003).|
|Major Threat(s):||In Bangladesh and India, this species is at risk of habitat disturbance and fragmentation, especially due to the establishment of tea gardens and paper mills, but also timber plantations, livestock ranching, shifting agriculture, firewood collection, charcoal production, and human settlement (Molur et al. 2003). Other threats facing these populations include pollution, inbreeding, and a local trade in the animals for zoos and as food (Molur et al. 2003). The population in Bangladesh has declines by more than 80% in the last 20 years, making it very vulnerable in its extremely fragmented locations (Molur et al. 2003). Further to the east of the range (in China, Viet Nam, Thailand, and Lao PDR), the major threat is hunting for traditional “medicine” and bushmeat. Indeed, in northern Thailand they have been nearly entirely hunted out, and now only survive in larger protected areas. In the known Lao PDR stronghold for this species (Bolikhamsai province), there is extensive infrastructure development for hydro-electric power, which is likely to increase hunting pressure on these populations (R. Timmins pers. comm.). Furthermore, the range of the species in Viet Nam, Lao PDR and Thailand coincides with ethnic minorities that favour shifting cultivation, with a continual resulting loss of forest (R. Timmins pers. comm.).|
The species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It is listed under Schedule I, part I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act (amended up to 2002), while in Bangladesh it is listed as Schedule III in the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Molur et al. 2003). It is listed as Category I under wildlife Protection Act, 1989 in China, and has been a completely protected species in Myanmar since 1994, though a priority for this species is survey work in order to determine the current status of populations there. It is listed on Appendix 1B of Decree 32 (2006) in Viet Nam.
This species is found in a number of protected areas throughout its range, including: Lawachara National Park, Rama-Kalenga Sanctuary (Bangladesh); Galoligongshan Nature Reserve, Wuliangshan Nature Reserve, Ailaoshan Nature Reserve, Daxueshan Nature Reserve, Nanguanhe Nature Reserve, Tongbiguan Nature Reserve, Lancangjiang Nature Reserve, Huanlianshan Nature Reserve, Fenshuiling Nature Reserve, Niuluohe Nature Reserve, Caiyanghe Nature Reserve, Xishuanbanna Nature Reserve (China); Dampa Sanctuary, Gumti Sanctuary, Sepahijala Sanctuary, Trishna Sanctuary (India); Pegu Yoma Reserve, Pidaung Reserve, Popa Mountain National Park (Myanmar); Nam Nao National Park, Phu Khieo Sanctuary (Thailand); Cuc Phuong National Park (Viet Nam). It might possibly occur in Phou Dendin National Park (Lao PDR) as well.
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Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
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Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.
Nadler, T., Streicher, U. and Ha Thang Long. 2004. Conservation of primates in Vietnam. Haki Publishing, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Roonwal, M. and Mohnot, S. 1977. Primates of South Asia: Ecology, Sociobiology and Behavior. Cambridge.
Roos, C. 2003. Molekulare Phylogenie der Halbaffen, Schlankaffen, und Gibbons. Technischen Universität.
Ruggeri, N. and Timmins, R. 1996. An initial summary of diurnal primate status in Laos. Asian Primates 5(3-4): 1-3.
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Zhang, Y., Chen, L., Qu, W. and Coggins, C. 2002. The Primates of China: Biogeography and Conservation Status. Asian Primates 8(1-2): 20-22.
|Citation:||Bleisch, B., Brockelman, W., Timmins, R.J., Nadler, T., Thun, S., Das, J. & Yongcheng, L. 2008. Trachypithecus phayrei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 March 2015.|