Trachypithecus cristatus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Trachypithecus cristatus
Species Authority: (Raffles, 1821)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Silvery Lutung, Silvered Langur, Silvered Monkey, Silvered Leaf Monkey
French Budeng
Spanish Langur Crestado
Trachypithecus pruinosus (Desmarest, 1822)
Trachypithecus pullata (Thomas & Wroughton, 1909)
Trachypithecus rutledgii (Anderson, 1878)
Trachypithecus ultima (Elliot, 1910)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Nijman, V. & Meijaard, E.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Considering the extensive habitat loss that has taken place within the range of the species, there is reason to believe that this species is in decline, probably at a rate of less than 30% over three generations (approximately 30 years), thus qualifying if for listing as Near Threatened, almost qualifying as threatened under criterion A2c.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in Brunei, Indonesia (Bangka, Belitung, Kalimantan Borneo, the Natuna Islands, Lingga, Bintang, Sugi, Jombol, and Bakang in the Riau Archipelago, and Sumatra), and Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak Borneo, and a strip along the western coast of the Peninsula). It might occur on Batam in the Riau Archipelago as well (Groves 2001).

Trachypithecus cristatus cristatus
Occurs in Brunei, Indonesia (Bangka, Belitung, Kalimantan Borneo, Lingga, Bintang, Sugi, Jombol, and Bakang in the Riau Archipelago, and Sumatra), and Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak Borneo, and a strip along the western coast of the Peninsula). May occur on Batam in the Riau Archipelago as well (Groves 2001).

Trachypithecus cristatus vigilans
Occurs on Sirhassen (Serasen), in the Natuna Islands, Indonesia (Groves 2001).
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Very little is known about this species, and most of what is known is from Peninsular Malaysia. It is reported to be rare in Borneo.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Most of what is known of this species is from Peninsular Malaysia, which is a small portion of the range for the species. In Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo it is known mostly from riparian and mangrove forest (V. Nijman pers. comm.), while in Sumatra it is found in a variety of primary and secondary forest types, including riverine, mangrove, swamp, montane and coastal (Furuya 1961; MacKinnon and MacKinnon 1987). It is occasionally found in plantations.

This species is mainly folivorous, with leaves comprising 60 to 80% of the diet (Nadler et al. 2003). However, it will also feed on fruit, seeds, flowers, and young shoots (Bernstein 1968; Furuya 1961).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Disappearance of suitable lowland habitat due to land clearance (especially for oil palm plantations) and forest fires is a major threat, especially in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. The species is hunted in Sarawak, while in Sumatra it is heavily traded and is a popular pet.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It is known to occur in at least four protected areas: Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park and Gunung Leuser National Park in Indonesia, and Bako National Park and Taman Negara National Park in Malaysia; is may occur as well in Tanjung Puting National Park, Indonesia (M. Richardson pers. comm.). There is a small worldwide captive population.

Bibliography [top]

Bernstein, I. 1968. The lutong of Kuala Selangor. Behaviour 32: 1–16.

Furuya, Y. 1985. The social life of silvered leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus cristatus). Archives Neerlandaises de Zoologie 13: 580-581.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. 1987. Conservation and status of the primates of the Indo-Chinese subregion. Primate Conservation 8: 187-195.

Nadler, T., Momberg, F., Nguyen Xuan Dang and Lormée, N. 2003. Vietnam Primate Conservation Status Review 2002. Part 2: Leaf Monkeys. Fauna and Flora International- Vietnam Program and Frankfurt Zoological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Payne, J., Francis, C.M. and Phillipps, K. 1985. A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society and WWF Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Rosenblum, L. L., Supriatna, J., Hasan, M. N. and Melnick, D. J. 1997. High mitochondrial DNA diversity with little structure within and among leaf monkey populations (Trachypithecus cristatus and Trachypithecus auratus). International Journal of Primatology 18(6): 1005-1028.

Citation: Nijman, V. & Meijaard, E. 2008. Trachypithecus cristatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 02 September 2015.
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