Trachypithecus auratus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Trachypithecus auratus (É, Geoffroy, 1812)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Javan Lutung, Ebony Leaf Monkey, Javan Langur
Trachypithecus kohlbruggei (Sody, 1931)
Trachypithecus maurus (Horsfield, 1823)
Trachypithecus pyrrhus (Horsfield, 1823)
Trachypithecus sondaicus (Robinson & Kloss, 1919)
Trachypithecus stresemanni Pocock, 1934
Taxonomic Notes: There is disagreement over the validity and physical separation of the subspecies. Designations of subspecies are not well defined, and a genetic study refutes the assignment of any (Rosenblum et al. 1997).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Nijman, V. & Supriatna, J.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is considered Vulnerable due to a past and continued population decline, estimated at more than 30% over the past 36 years (3 generations, given a generation length of 12 years), as a result of capture for the illegal pet trade, hunting, and loss of habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Indonesia, where it occurs on Java and the smaller islands of Bali, Lombok, Palau Sempu and Nusa Barung. The Lombok population may have been introduced there by humans (Groves 2001). The boundary between the two subspecies runs from the south coast of Java at about 109°E, northwestward to the vicinity of Jakarta (Groves 2001).

Trachypithecus auratus auratus
Occurs in eastern Java, Bali, Lombok, Palau Sempu and Nusa Barung. This subspecies has two morphs, one of which, the red morph, has a restricted distribution between Blitar, Ijen, and Pugeran, Java (Groves 2001). The other morph is more common and found in eastern Java, west to Gunung Ujungtebu (Brandon-Jones 1995).

Trachypithecus auratus mauritius
This subspecies has a restricted distribution in west Java to the north coast from Jakarta, inland to Bogor, Cisalak, and Jasinga, southwest to Ujung Kulon, then along the south coast to Cikaso or Ciwangi (Groves 2001).
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species was the most frequently observed primate during a survey of the Dieng Mountains in central Java (Nijman and van Balen 1998). Nijman and van Balen (1998) reported it to be rather common on both Mount Prahu and the central part of the study area in the Pegunungan Dieng Mountains where they also estimate a density of 23 individuals/km2. From a review of 14 studies, densities were estimated as following: 7.9 (+/- 8.8) groups/km2, and individuals estimated at 114 (+/- 147.9) groups/km2 (E. Meijaard and V. Nijman pers. comm.).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:T. auratus occurs in mangrove, beach, and freshwater swamp forests, ever-wet lowland and hill forests, dry deciduous forests, and montane forest up to 3,000-3,500 m (Nijman 2000), in addition to teak, rasamala, and acacia forest plantations.

It is mostly folivorous, preferring to eat leaves and flowers, though it will consume the seeds of fruits and unripened fruits as well (Nijman 2000). In the Dieng Mountains of central Java, it has been recorded from both primary and secondary forest, both on the edges and in the interior (Nijman and van Balen 1998). Home range was calculated by Kool (1993) to be 20-30 ha and may be bigger in Java.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threats include habitat loss and degradation due to expanding agriculture and human settlements, hunting for food and increasingly for the pet trade, fragmentation, and small isolated populations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II, and has been protected by Indonesian law since 1999. It has been recorded from Pangandaran Nature Reserve (Watanabe et al. 1996), Gunung Halimun and Ujung Kulon National Park (Gurmaya et al. 1994), and is one of the more common and thriving colobines in captivity.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Brandon-Jones, D. 1995. A revision of the Asian pied leaf monkeys (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae: superspecies Semnopithecus auratus), with a description of a new subspecies. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 43: 3-43.

Groves C.P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Gurmaya, K. J., Adiputra, I. M. W., Saryatiman, A. B., Danardono, S. N. and Sibuea, T. T. H. 1994. A preliminary study on ecology and conservation of the Java primates in Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia. In: B. Thierry, J. R. Anderson, J. J. Roeder and N. Herrenschmidt (eds), Current Primatology, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.

Kool, K. 1993. The diet and feeding behavior of the silver leaf monkey (Trachypithecus auratus sondaicus) in Indonesia. International Journal of Primatology 14(5): 667–700.

Maryanto, I., Mansjoer, I., Sajuthi, D. and Supriatna, J. 1997. Morphological variation in the Ebony and Silver leaf monkeys [Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy, 1812) and Trachypithecus cristatus (Raffles, 1821)] from Southeast Asia. Treubia 31: 113-131.

Nijman, V. 2000. Geographic distribution of ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Mammalia: primates: Cercopithecidae). Contributions to Zoology 69(3).

Nijman, V. and van Balen, S. 1998. A faunal survey of the Dieng Mountains, central Java, Indonesia: distribution and conservation of endemic primate taxa. Oryx 32(2): 145 – 156.

Rosenblum, L. L., Supriatna, J., Hasan, M. N. and Melnick, D. J. 1997. High mitochondrial DNA diversity with little structure within and among leaf monkey populations (Trachypithecus cristatus and Trachypithecus auratus). International Journal of Primatology 18(6): 1005-1028.

Watanabe, K., Mitani, M., Arakane, T., Gurmaya, K. J., Dirgayusa, W. A., Megantara, E. N. and Brotoisworo, E. 1996. Population changes of Presbytis auratus and Macaca fascicularis in the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, west Java, Indonesia. Primate Research 12: 271.

Citation: Nijman, V. & Supriatna, J. 2008. Trachypithecus auratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T22034A9348260. . Downloaded on 14 August 2018.
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