|Scientific Name:||Tokudaia muenninki (Johnson, 1946)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Laginha Pinto Correia, D.|
Listed as Critically Endangered as the extent of occurrence is less than 100 km2, the species' habitat is severely fragmented. This species is endemic to Okinawa Island where deforestation is a major threat, mainly through government forestry programs. Additionally, invasive species, particularly feral cats Felis catus, mongooses Herpestes auropunctatus and black rats Rattus rattus, are also thought to be responsible for the decline of the distribution range of this species.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. It is found only on the northern part (Yanbaru area) of the island, above 300 m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Population density estimates were of 1.8/ha in 1978 and the population is currently considered to be severely declining. A 1994 survey on Mount Yonahadake did not find any individuals, in a place where one was caught in 1974. Recently, Yamada et al. (2010) captured individuals of this species for the first time in 30 years. Despite intensive trapping between 2007 and 2009, only 24 individuals were caught in a forest fragment estimated to be only 1-3 km2 large.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species inhabits forest (chinquapins) over 30 years old in the northern part of the island. These forests are dominated by Castanopsis sieboldii, Lithocarpus edulis, Distylium racemosum and Schima wallichii (Yamada et al. 2010). This species prefers forests with high undergrowth (Abe et al. 2005), and has also been found in chinquapin forests surrounded by sugarcane fields (Abe et al. 2005).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Major Threat(s):||On the island, deforestation is a major threat, mainly through government forestry programs. Additionally, invasive species, particularly feral cats Felis catus, mongooses Herpestes auropunctatus and black rats Rattus rattus, are also thought to be responsible for the decline of the distribution range of this species (Abe et al. 2005, Yamada et al. 2010).|
|Conservation Actions:||Full protection for all of the Yanbaru region of Okinawa Island is recommended. Management or control of introduced predators is also needed. A conservation education program using this species, as well as Okinawa Rail and Okinawa Woodpecker as flagship species would be beneficial. It is listed as Critically Endangered (CR) in the Japanese Red List (2007).|
Abe, H., Ishii, N., Ito, T., Kaneko, Y., Maeda, K., Miura, S. and Yoneda, M. 2005. A Guide to the Mammals of Japan. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, Japan.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Kaneko, Y. 2001. Morphological discrimination of the Ryukyu spiny rat (genus Tokudaia) between the islands of Okinawa and Amami Oshima, in the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. Mammal Study 26(1): 17-33.
Suzuki, H., Tsuchiya, K. and Takezaki, N. 2000. A molecular phylogenetic framework of the Ryukyu endemic rodents Tokudai osimensis and Diplothrix legata. Molecular phylogenetics and Evolution 15: 15-24.
Yamada, F., Kawauchi, N., Nakata, K., Abe, S., Kotaka, N., Takashima, A., Murata, C. and Kuroiwa, A. 2010. Rediscovery after thirty years since the last capture of the critically endangered Okinawa spiny rat Tokudaia muenninki in the northern part of Okinawa Island. Mammal Study 35(4): 243-255.
|Citation:||Ishii, N. 2016. Tokudaia muenninki. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T21972A22409515.Downloaded on 24 September 2017.|
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