|Scientific Name:||Thunnus thynnus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
Scomber thynnus Linnaeus, 1758
Thunnus vulgaris Cuvier, 1832
Thynnus linnei Malm, 1877
Thynnus mediterraneus Risso, 1827
Thynnus secundodorsalis Storer, 1855
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.). 2015. Catalog of Fishes. Updated 7 January 2015. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 7 January 2015).|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This is now considered to be a separate species from Thunnus orientalis (Collette 1999).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Collette, B., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Die, D., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Hinton, M., Juan Jorda, M., Kada, O., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Pollard, D., Restrepo, V., Schratwieser, J., Teixeira Lessa, R.P., Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E. & Uozumi, Y.|
|Reviewer(s):||Russell, B., Worm, B., Richards, W., MacKenzie, B. & Polidoro, B.|
This Atlantic species has experienced declines in range and reported catch per unit effort (CPUE) since the 1960s. Although a number of uncertainties exist in the reported data, especially from the Mediterranean region, the best estimates from the most recent 2010 stock assessment indicate that there has been a global decline of between 29% and 51% based on summed spawning stock biomass (SSB) from both the Western and Eastern stocks over the past 21–39 years (three generations, based on a generation length of between seven and 13 years). Pre-exploitation longevity is not known for the Eastern Atlantic, but it is assumed that at one point that this species had a similar longer generation length across its global range. Therefore, this species is estimated to have declined at least 51% over the past three generation lengths (39 years) and is listed as Endangered under Criterion A2. In the Eastern Atlantic stock, current fishing mortality is far above maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and estimated SSB is far below MSY. The Western Atlantic stock has experienced severe declines in the past, is also below MSY, and has not recovered under current fishing regimes. Management of the eastern Atlantic stock is essential to the future of this species, as it represents the majority of this species global population.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species was present in the western Atlantic from Canada to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, although the bulk of the population off Brazil has now disappeared (Porch 2005, Takeuchi et al. 2009, Worm and Tittensor 2011). Over the last 20 to 36 years, the species has not been recorded off the coast of Brazil (Lessa and Amorim pers. comm. 2010) and there are no records of Bluefin Tuna in southern Brazil in the 21st century (Gasalla pers. comm. 2010).|
In the eastern Atlantic, it is present from Norway to the Canary Islands. It is also reported from Mauritania (Maigret and Ly 1986) and off South Africa (Collette and Nauen 1983). It is present in the Mediterranean Sea and the southern Black Sea. Black Sea Bluefin Tuna was well documented in ancient times and there was an annual migration from the Black Sea to eastern Mediterranean spawning grounds. However, after World War II, the environmental condition in the Black Sea deteriorated and now sightings in the Black Sea are rare. An analysis of present over historical ranges concluded that Atlantic Bluefin Tuna has shown larger range contractions (minus 46% since 1960) than any other pelagic species (Worm and Tittensor 2011).
Native:Albania; Algeria; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil; Bulgaria; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Croatia; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Denmark; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; France; French Guiana; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Malta; Martinique; Mexico; Monaco; Montserrat; Morocco; Namibia; Netherlands; Nicaragua; Norway; Panama; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Suriname; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turks and Caicos Islands; United Kingdom; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Western Sahara
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species has become rare relative to historical levels because of massive overfishing (Fromentin and Powers 2005, Majkowski 2007, MacKenzie et al. 2009). The Center for Biological Diversity (CBD 2010) petitioned the U.S. Government to list the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The U.S. government agreed to conduct a status review for this species (Schwaab 2010), but decided not to list it as Endangered or Threatened but as a Species of Concern (NMFS 2011) with plans to review its status again in 2013.|
Genetic differentiation and homing to breeding sites indicates that there are at least three reproductively isolated stocks (Boustany et al. 2008, Carlsson et al. 2007) although there is considerable trans-Atlantic migration of individuals from the Mediterranean and western North Atlantic stocks (Rooker et al. 2008, Dickhut et al. 2009). The western Atlantic stock is found from Labrador and Newfoundland south into the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; the eastern Atlantic stock from Norway south to the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean Sea. There is a distinct Mediterranean/East Atlantic stock but there is some mixing with the western Atlantic stock in the North Atlantic (Block et al. 2005); in addition, there are genetically recognizable populations within the Mediterranean (Riccione et al. 2010).
Worldwide reported landings show fluctuating, but relatively stable landings from 1950–1993, of between 15,000 and 39,000 tonnes per year. Reported catches increased to a peak of 52,785 tonnes in 1996, and then fell again to 38,830 tonnes in 2006 (FAO 2009). However, in many regions, the catch statistics for this species are considered to be unreliable because catches are not reported from some countries and landings data are confounded by ranching harvests occurring months to years after the fish have been caught (STEFC 2009). Based on the most recent stock assessment (ICCAT 2010), summed SBB biomass for both the Eastern and Western Atlantic stocks has declined at least 51% since 1970.
Western Atlantic Stock
In the western North Atlantic, the reported catch from 2000–2004 averaged 2,000–3,000 tonnes/year, and the status of the stock is Depleted (Majkowski 2007, ICCAT 2010). Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna fisheries have been managed since the early 1980s (as of when 1982 quota restrictions were imposed) and catches have been relatively stable at around 2,500 tonnes (t) until 2001. They increased in 2002 to 3,319 t and have been declining since then, reaching 1,624 t in 2007. In 2008, catches increased again to 2,015 t. The most recent stock assessment (ICCAT 2010) is consistent with previous analyses in that spawning stock biomass (SSB) declined steadily between the early 1970s and early 1990s. Since then, SSB is estimated to have fluctuated between 21% and 28% of the 1970 level, but with a gradual increase in recent years from the low of 21% in 2003 to 29% in 2009. The stock has experienced different levels of fishing mortality over time, depending on the fish targeted by various fleets. A key factor in estimating MSY-related benchmarks is the highest level of recruitment that can be achieved in the long term. Assuming that average recruitment cannot reach the high levels from the early 1970s, recent F (2006–2008) is 70% of the MSY level and SSB2009 is about 10% higher than the MSY level. However, estimates of stock status are more pessimistic if a high recruitment scenario is considered (F/FMSY=1.9 and B/BMSY=0.15) (ICCAT SCRS 2010).
As linear regression did not provide the best fit for the steep declines observed in SSB over time in the Western Atlantic, using endpoints of the base case (ICCAT 2010) there has been an estimated 72% decline in SSB over the past 39 years (1970–2009), and a less than 1% decline in SSB over the past 21 years (1988–2009).
Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock
In the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock, the reported catch from 2000–2004 averaged 32,000–35,000 tonnes/year, and the status of the stock is Over-Exploited (Majkowski 2007, ICCAT 2010). Currently this stock is fished at levels above FMSY, and estimated SSB is only about 35% of the biomass that is expected under a MSY (ICCAT SCRS 2010). The increase in mortality for large Bluefin Tuna is consistent with an apparent shift in targeting larger individuals destined for fattening and/or farming in the region. A quota system has been put in place to set levels for maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of 29,000 mt (STECF 2009), but current models put the MSY at 13,500 mt (ICCAT SCRS 2010). The current management structure has established TACs for the entire Mediterranean; however, recent genetic studies suggest multiple populations within the Mediterranean (Riccione et al. 2010). This is problematic because there is the potential for overfishing of segments of the Mediterranean population. In addition, information available has demonstrated that catches of Bluefin Tuna from the East Atlantic and Mediterranean were seriously under-reported between the mid-1990s through 2007. The lack of compliance with TAC and underreporting of the catch may have severely undermined the conservation of the stock (ICCAT SCRS 2010).
In the most recent stock assessment (ICCAT SCRS 2010), final estimated spawning biomass differs slightly between the two satisfactory model runs. The spawning biomass peaked at over 300,000 tonnes in the late 1950s and early 1970s, followed by a decline. Under run 13, the biomass continued to decline slightly to about 150,000 tonnes, while under run 15 biomass slightly increased during the late 2000s to about 2000,000 tonnes. Considering both runs, the analyses indicated that recent (2007–2009) SSB is about 57% of the highest estimated SSB levels (1957–1959).
Using endpoints of the base case (ICCAT 2010) there has been an estimated 45% decline in SSB over the past 39 years (1970–2009), and a 30% decline in SSB over the past 21 years (1988–2009) in the Eastern Atlantic stock.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a pelagic, oceanodromous species, that seasonally can be found close to shore and can tolerate a wide range of temperatures. This species schools by size, sometimes together with Albacore, Yellowfin, Bigeye, Skipjack etc. It preys on small schooling fishes (anchovies, sauries, hakes) or on squids and red crabs. A recent study on the Mediterranean diet of this species provided evidence that juveniles prey mainly on zooplankton and small pelagic coastal fishes, sub-adults prey on medium pelagic fishes, shrimps and cephalopods, while adults prey mainly on cephalopods and larger fishes (Sarà and Sarà 2007).|
This species has a maximum size over 300 cm fork length (FL), but is more common to 200 cm. Longevity is at least 35 years and possibly to 50 years (Santamaria et al. 2009).
In the Western Atlantic, this species spawns in the Gulf of Mexico from mid-April to early June at temperatures of 22.6–27.5°C, starting at age 8–10 years at around 200 cm (FL), although most individuals first spawn closer to age 12 (Rooker et al. 2007, Rooker et al. 2008, Boustany et al. 2008, Diaz et al. 2009, Collette 2010). Recently, a few larvae were collected northeast of Campeche Bank suggesting that they were spawned outside of the Gulf of Mexico (Muhling et al. 2011). Maximum age is around 32 years (Neilson and Compana 2008), although age composition structure has also changed over time (e.g., there are more younger individuals). For the most recent stock assessment, an age of first maturity was estimated to be approximately 145 kg or about age nine years in the Gulf of Mexico (SRCS ICCAT 2010). For the western Atlantic stock, the generation length is therefore estimated to be approximately 13 years based on average survivorship and fecundity across known scombrid stocks (Collette et al. 2011).
The Eastern Atlantic stock spawns in the Mediterranean Sea from May to August at temperatures of 22.5–25.5°C, starting at age three years and full recruitment is reached by age five years. There are distinct behaviours during the spawning time, most noticeably with changes in diving times and depths. Estimated relative batch fecundity is greater (more than 90 oocytes/g of body weight) than estimated for other tunas in the genus Thunnus (Sissenwine et al. 1998, Corriero et al. 2003, Rooker et al. 2007, Boustany et al. 2008, Rooker et al. 2008, Collette 2010). Fromentin and Powers (2005) reported that there is spawning site fidelity for this species both in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico. There are several spawning grounds throughout the Mediterranean. In addition, there are genetically recognizable populations within the Mediterranean (Riccioni et al. 2010).
Median sexual maturity in the Mediterranean Sea was reached at 103.6 cm (FL), and females weighing between 270 and 300 kg produce as many as 10 million eggs per spawning season (Corriero et al. 2005).
In the Eastern Atlantic stock and in the Mediterranean Sea, age of first maturity is about 3–5 years (115–121 cm FL), with a longevity of 35 years or more (Corriero et al. 2003, Santamaria et al. 2009, Rooker et al. 2007, Rooker et al. 2008). For the most recent stock assessment, an age of first maturity was estimated to be approximately 25 kg or age four years in the Mediterranean (ICCAT SCRS 2010). For the eastern Atlantic stock, the generation length is therefore estimated to be approximately seven years based on average survivorship and fecundity across known scombrid stocks (Collette et al. 2011).
Maximum Size (in cms) 458 (TL). The all-tackle angling record is of a 678.58 kg fish caught off Aulds Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada in 1979 (IGFA 2011.)
|Generation Length (years):||7-13|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||This is a highly valued species for the Japanese sashimi markets, which has led to severe overfishing in both the Eastern and Western Atlantic. It is also an important gamefish particularly in the United States and Canada.|
This species is mainly caught by purse-seine, longline and traps. It is also used for commercial fish farming in the Mediterranean Sea.
The eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna stock is taken by a variety of vessels and types of fishing gears, with landing sites located in many countries. The main gears are longline, trap and baitboat for the east Atlantic, and purse-seine, longline and traps for the Mediterranean. Recreational fishing may also be a relevant but unquantified source of fishing mortality on juvenile Bluefin Tuna. The paucity of reliable data from various fisheries has compromised the stock assessments of the eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna stock for many years (see for example ICCAT SCRS 2010, STECF 2009). Size composition data from purse seine fisheries was missing for many years, particularly in the 1990s. For most of the 2000s, tuna farming compounded the problem of obtaining accurate catch and size-composition data because the fish cannot be accurately sampled until harvesting, which takes place from four months to several years after the fish are caught in the wild. The accuracy of overall catches has also been affected over time by under-reporting or over-reporting associated with quotas. In addition, data on juvenile Bluefin Tuna catches from the Mediterranean were also unavailable for many years. Since 2008, ICCAT has adopted several measures that should address these concerns, such as an increase in minimum size, and 100% observer coverage on purse seiners and transfers of fish to cages. However, despite the expectation that these measures will improve fishery statistics, substantial gaps remain in the historical data used for stock assessments.
In the western Atlantic, the fishery is conducted by the US, Canada and Japan. There are concerns over the potential impacts on the 2010 year class from the Deep Horizon oil spill that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico between April–August of that year (Campagna et al. 2011, Richards 2011).
There are several conservation measures for this species mainly based on regulation of fisheries activities. The International Commission for the Conservation of the Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) was established in 1967. Fisheries quotas have been set up since 1982, and a comprehensive pluri-annual recovery action plan adopted by the ICCAT contracting parties in 2007, including time closure for fishing activities and mandated reduction in fishing capacity. However, many conservation measures are not fully enforced and illegal catch continues. Enforcement of the existing measures is needed to prevent extinction of this species. Also, although the Bluefin Tuna probably has more data collected on it than most other fish species, uncertainties in the data make much of it unreliable. It is crucial to improve the quality of data if fisheries managers are going to be able to improve their methods.
High priority also needs to be given to protecting spawning adults in the Gulf of Mexico and Mediterranean Sea. Large adults in the northern foraging region in the Gulf of Maine and Gulf of St. Lawrence also need protection because this region represents critical refugia (Rooker et al. 2008).
Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean
For EU Member States, driftnet fishing for tuna has been banned since 1st January 2002, while the ban entered into force in 2004 for all the other Contracting Parties to ICCAT, as well as the GFCM Member States, but a driftnet fishing activity is still officially permitted in Morocco. The ICCAT further believes that a time area closure could greatly facilitate the implementation and the monitoring of rebuilding strategies. In 2006, ICCAT established a management plan to rebuild the stock to BMSY by 2022 with 50% or greater probability (Rec. 06-05). As various issues related to implementation of the plan have come up, the plan has been amended and strengthened every year since. In [Rec. 09-06] the Commission established a total allowable catch for eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin Tuna at 13,500 t for 2010. The current management plan (Rec. 10-04) calls for rebuilding to be achieved with at least 60% probability. It includes a number of conservation measures (country-specific TACs, minimum size limit, closed fishing seasons, management controls of fishing and farming capacity) as well as Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) measures (vessel registers, vessel monitoring systems, observer programs, transshipment prohibitions, weekly catch reporting, etc.). ICCAT has also approved a research program with different components aimed at improving data and knowledge of Bluefin Tuna biology and behaviour. It is still early to see what practical improvements these efforts will have on rebuilding the stock and improving stock assessments, but it is generally agreed that investments in research and MCS need to be sustained if overfishing is to be avoided.
Deferring effective management measures will likely result in even more stringent measures being necessary in the future to achieve the ICCAT objectives. STECF agrees with the ICCAT SCRS that the minimum catch size should be set at 25 kg in order to avoid misreporting and/or discarded catches of mature fish between 25 kg and 30 kg. There remains an urgent need to have more reliable and complete size frequency data (particularly, but not only, for early year-classes 1–3) for the period following the introduction of a TAC in the Mediterranean. Tagging programs, fishery independent surveys and mining of historical data will all contribute to a better understanding of the status of this species and should be encouraged (STECF 2009).
In 1998, the Commission initiated a 20-year rebuilding plan designed to achieve BMSY with at least 50% probability. In response to recent assessments, in 2008 the Commission recommended a total allowable catch (TAC) of 1,900 t in 2009 and 1,800 t in 2010 [Rec. 08-04] (ICCAT SCRS 2010). Probabilities of achieving BMSY within the Commission rebuilding period were projected for alternative catch levels. The "low recruitment scenario" suggests that biomass is currently sufficient to produce MSY, whereas the "high recruitment scenario" suggests that BMSY has a very low probability of being achieved within the rebuilding period. Despite this large uncertainty about the long term future productivity of the stock, under either recruitment scenario current catches (1,800 t) should allow the biomass to continue to increase. Also, catches in the order of 2,500 t (the level established in previous TACs) would prevent the stock from rebuilding (ICCAT SCRS 2010).
As noted previously by the SCRS, both the productivity of western Atlantic Bluefin and western Atlantic Bluefin fisheries are linked to the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock. Therefore, management actions taken in the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean are likely to influence the recovery in the western Atlantic, because even small rates of mixing from east to west can have significant effects on the west due to the fact that eastern plus Mediterranean resource is much larger than that of the west (ICCAT SCRS 2010, STECF 2009).
Directed longline fishing for bluefin in the Gulf of Mexico is prohibited although a bycatch of one Bluefin Tuna is allowed during fishing directed at Yellowfin Tuna. Effective 5th May 2011, NMFS requires the use of “weak hooks” by pelagic longline vessels fishing in the Gulf of Mexico with the hopes that smaller Yellowfin Tuna will be retained on the hook and larger Bluefin Tuna will pull free (NMFS 2011). It is not yet clear if this technique will avoid adding to the thermal stress that longline-caught bluefins face on the spawning grounds in the Gulf of Mexico (Block et al. 2005).
It is strongly recommended that long-term larval studies in the Gulf of Mexico continue to assess the size of the population and to determine the potential impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on the western Atlantic population, especially as the oil spill occurred during spawning season in May and June 2010. In addition, all tuna long-lining should be prohibited in the Gulf of Mexico during the spawning season in order to try to rebuild the population.
Alvarado-Bremer, J.R., Vinas, J., Mejuto, J., Ely, B. and Pla, C. 2005. Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna and swordfish: the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, introgression, and population expansion on the regional phylogenies of two highly migratory pelagic fishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 169-187.
Baglin, R.E. 1982. Reproductive biology of western Atlantic bluefin tuna. Fishery Bulletin 80: 121-134.
Block, B.A., Dewar, H., Blackwell, S.D., Williams, T.D., Prince, E.D., Farwell, C.J., Boustany, A., Teo, S.L.H., Seitz,, A., Walli, A. and Fudge, D. 2001. Migratory movements, depth preferences and thermal biology of Atlantic bluefin tuna. Science 293: 1310-1314.
Block, B.A., Teo, S.L.H., Walli, A., Boustany, A., Stokesbury, M.J.W., Farwell, C.J., Weng, K.C., Dewar, H. and Williams, T.D. 2005. Electronic tagging and population structure of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. Nature 434: 1121-1127.
Boustany, A.M., Reeb, C.A., and Block, B.A. 2008. Mitochondrial DNA and electronic tracking reveal population structure of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus). Marine Biology 156: 13-24.
Caminas, J.A., Baez, J.C., Valeiras, X. and Real, R. 2006. Differential loggerhead by-catch and direct mortality due to surface longlines according to boat strata and gear type. Scientia Marina 70(4): 661-665.
Campagna C., Short, F.T., Polidoro, B.A., McManus, R., Collette, B., Pilcher, N.J., Sadovy, Y., Stuart, S. and Carpenter, K. 2011. Gulf of Mexico oil blowout increases risk to globally threatened species. Bioscience 61(5): 393-397.
Carlsson, J., McDowell, J., Carlsson, J. and Graves, J. 2007. Genetic identity of young of the year Bluefin Tuna from the eastern and western spawning areas. Journal of Heredity 98: 23-28.
Center for Biological Diversity. 2010. Petition to list the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Center for Biological Diversity.
Chase, B. 2002. Differences in diet of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) at five seasonal feeding grounds on the New England continental shelf. Fisheries Bulletin 100: 168-180.
Collette, B.B. 2001. Scombridae. In: K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds), The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, pp. 3721-3756. FAO, Rome.
Collette, B.B. 2010. Reproduction and Development in Epipelagic Fishes. In: Cole, K.S. (ed.), Reproduction and sexuality in marine fishes: patterns and processes, pp. 21-63. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Collette, B.B. and Nauen, C.E. 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World: an annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Fisheries Synopsis number 125, volume 2.
Collette, B.B., Carpenter, K.E., Polidoro, B.A., Juan-Jorda, M.J., Boustany, A., Die, D.J., Elfes, C., Fox, W., Graves, J., Harrison, L., McManus, R., Minte-Vera, C., Nelson, R., Restrepo, V., Schratwieser, J., Sun, C-L, Brick Peres, M., Canales, C., Cardenas, G., Chang, S.-K., Chiang, W-C, de Oliveira Leite, N., Harwell, H., Lessa, R., Fredou, F.L., Oxenford, H.A., Serra, R., Shao, K.-T., Sumalia, R., Wang, S-P, Watson, R. and Yanez, E. 2011. High value and long life: Double jeopardy for tunas and billfishes. Science 333: 291-292.
Coll, M., Shannon, L.J., Moloney, C.L., Palomera, I. and Tudela, S. 2006. Comparing trophic flows and fishing impacts of a Northwestern Mediterranean ecosystem with coastal upwelling systems by means of standardized models and indicators. Ecological Modelling 198: 53-70.
Corriero, A., Desantis, S., Deflorio, M., Acone, F., Bridges, C.R., De La Sernas, J.M., Megalofonou, P. and De Metrio, G. 2003. Histological investigation on the ovarian cycle of the Bluefin Tuna in the Western and Central Mediterranean. Journal of Fish Biology 63: 108-119.
Corriero, A., Karakulak, S., Santamaria, S., Deflorio, M., Spedicato, D., Addis, P., Desantis, S., Cirillo, F., Fenech-Farrugia, A., Vassallo-Agius, R., de la Serna, J.M., Oray, Y., Cau, A., Magalofonou, P. and De Metrio, G. 2005. Size and age at sexual maturity of female Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L., 1758) from the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 21: 483-486.
Diaz, G.A., Restrepo, V.R. and McHale, B. 2009. Characterization of the U.S. commercial and recreational tuna fleets during 2007. Collective Volume of Scientific Papers ICCAT 64(2): 449-453.
Dickhut, R., Deshpande, A., Cincinelli, A., Cochran, M., Corsolini, S., Brill, R., Secor, D.H. and Graves, J.E. 2009. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) population dynamics delineated by organochlorine tracers. Environmental Science and Technology 43: 8552-8557.
FAO. 2009. FishStat Plus Version 2.32. Universal Software for Fishery Statistics Time Series. Available at: www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstat/en.
Fromentin, J.M. 2009. Lessons from the past: investigating historical data from bluefin tuna fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 10: 197-216.
Fromentin, J.M. and Kell, L.T. 2007. Consequences of variations in carrying capacity or migration for the perception of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) population dynamics. Canadian journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64: 827-836.
Fromentin, J.M. and Powers, J.E. 2005. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: population dynamics, ecology, fisheries and management. Fish and Fisheries 6: 281-306.
Garcia-Rodriguez, M., Fernandez, A.M. and Esteban, A. 2006. Characterization, analysis and catch rates of the small-scale fisheries of the Alicante Gulf (Southeast Spain) over a 10 years time series. Fisheries Research 77: 226-238.
ICCAT. 2010. Report of the 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Stock Assessment Session. Madrid, Spain, September 6 to 12.
ICCAT SCRS. 2006. Report of the 2006 Atlantic Bluefin Stock Assessment. In: ICCAT (ed.). Madrid, Spain.
ICCAT SCRS. 2010. Report on the Standing Committee on Research and Statistics (SCRS). International Commission for Conservation of Atlantic Tuna, Madrid, Spain October 4-8, 2010.
IGFA. 2014. World Record Game Fishes. International Game Fish Association, Dania Beach, Florida.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Joseph, J. 2009. Status of the world fisheries for tuna. International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF).
Karakulak, S., Oray, I., Corriero, A., Deflorio, M., Santamaria, N., Desantis, S. and DeMetrio, G. 2004. Evidence of a spawning area for the bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the eastern Mediterranean. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 20: 318-320.
MacKenzie, B.R., Mosegaard, H. and Rosenberg, A.A. 2009. Impending collapse of Bluefin Tuna in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. Conservation Letters 2: 25-34.
Maigret, J. and Ly, B. 1986. Les poissons de mer de Mauritanie. Centre national de recherches océanographiques et des pêches (Mauritania) and Science Naturales, Compiègne, France.
Majkowski, J. 2007. Global fishery resources of tuna and tuna-like species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 483: 54.
Minos, G., tsakni, K. and Tsakalidis, A. 2006. Length-weight relationships for ten commercial fish species from northern Aegean, Greece. 10th Congress on the Zoogeography & Ecology fo Greece and Adjacent Regions Patras, Greece: 81.
Muhling, B.A., Lamkin, J.T. and Roffer, M.A. 2010. Predicting the occurrence of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) larvae in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: building a classification model from archival data. Fisheries Oceanography 19(6): 526-539.
Muhling, B.A., Lamkin, J.T., Quattro, J.M., Smith, R.H., Roberts, M.A, Roffer, M.A. and Ramirez, K. 2011. Collection of larval Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) outside documented western Atlantic spawning grounds. Bulletin of Marine Science 87(3): 687-694.
National Marine Fisheries Service. 2011. Status review report of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus). Report to National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Regional Office.
Neilson, J.D. and Compana, S.E. 2008. A validated description of age and growth of the Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 1523-1527.
Oray, I.K. and Karakulak, F.S. 2005. Further evidence of spawning of Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus L., 1758) and the tuna species (Auxis rochei Ris., 1810, Euthynnus alletteratus Raf., 1810) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: preliminary results of TUNALEV larval survey in 2004. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 21: 236-240.
Porch, C.E. 2005. The sustainability of western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: A warm-blooded fish in a hot-blooded fishery. Bulletin of Marine Science 76: 363–384.
Pujolar, J.M., Roldan, M.I. and Pla, C. 2003. Genetic analysis of tuna populations, Thunnus thynnus thynnus and T. alalunga. Marine Biology 143: 613-621.
Restrepo, V.R., G.A. Diaz, J.F. Walter, Neilson, J.D, Campana, S.E.,Secor, D. and Wingate, R.L. 2010. Updated estimate of the growth curve of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. Aquatic Living Resources 23: 335-342.
Riccioni, G., Landi, M., Ferrara, G., Milano, I., Cariani, A ., Zane, L., Sella, M., Barbujani, G. and Tinti, F. 2010. Spatio-temporal population structuring and genetic diversity retention in depleted Atlantic bluefin tuna of the Mediterranean Sea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107: 2102-2107.
Rooker, J.R., Alvarado-Bremer, J.R., Block, B.A., Dewar, H., de Metrio, G., Corriero, A., Kraus, R.T., Prince, E.D., Rodríguez-Marín, E. and Secor, D.H. 2007. Life history and stock structure of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus). Reviews in Fishery Science 15: 265-310.
Rooker, J.R., Secor, D.H., de Metrio, G., Schloesser, R., Block, B.A. and Neilson, J.D. 2008. Natal homing and connectivity in Atlantic Bluefin Tuna populations. Science 322: 742-744.
Santamaria, N., Bello, G., Corriero, A., Deflorio, M., Vassallo-Agius, R., Bök, T., and De Metrio, G. 2009. Age and growth of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Osteichthyes: Thunnidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 25: 38-45.
Sarà, G. and Sarà, R. 2007. Feeding habits and trophic levels of Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus thynnus,of different size classes in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 23: 122-127.
Schwaab, E.C. 2010. Listing Endangered and Threatened wildlife and plants; 90-day finding on a petition to list Atlantic Bluefin Tuna as Threatened or Endangered uner the Endangered Species Act. Federal Register 75(182): 57431-57436.
Secor, D.H. and Zdanowicz, V.S. 1998. Otolith microconstituent analysis of juvenile Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from Mediterranean Sea and Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Research 36: 251-256.
Sinopoli, M., Pipitone, C., Campagnuolo, S., Campo, D., Castriota, L., Mostarda, E. and Andaloro, F. 2004. Diet of young-of-the-year Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian (Mediterranean) Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 20: 310-313.
Sinovcic, G., Franicevic, M., Zorica, B. and Cikes-Kec, V. 2004. Length-weight and length-length relationships for 10 pelagic fish species from the Adriatic Sea (Croatia). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 20: 156-158.
Sissenwine, M.P., Mace, P.M., Powers, J.E. and Scott, G.P. 1998. A commentary on western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna assessments. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127: 838-855.
STECF. 2009. Review of Scientific Advice for 2010 Part 2. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries, Vigo, Spain.
Takeuchi, Y., Oshima, K. and Suzuki, Z. 2009. Inference on nature of Atlantic Bluefin tuna off Brazil caught be the Japanese longline fishery around the early 1960s. ICCAT Collected Volume of Scientific Papers 63: 186-194.
Teo, S.L.H., Boustany, A., Dewar, H., Stokesbury, M.J.W., Weng, K.C., Beemer, S., Seitz, A.C., Farwell, C.J., Prince, E.D. and Block, B.A. 2007. Annual migrations, diving behavior, and thermal biology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus thynnus on their Gulf of Mexico breeding grounds. Marine Biology 151: 1-18.
Worm, B. and Tittensor, D.P. 2011. Range contraction in large pelagic predators. proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences doi/10.1073.pnas.110235108.
Worm, B., Hilborn, R., Baum , J.K., Branch, T.A., Collie, J.S., Costello, C., Fogerty, M.J., Fulton, E.A., Hutchings, J.A., Jennings, S., Jensen, O.P., Lotze, H.K., Mace, P.M., McClanahan, T.R., Minto, C., Palumbi, S.R., Parma, A.M., Ricard, D., Rosenberg, AA.., Watson, R. and Zeller, D. 2009. Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325: 578-585.
|Citation:||Collette, B., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Die, D., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Hinton, M., Juan Jorda, M., Kada, O., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Pollard, D., Restrepo, V., Schratwieser, J., Teixeira Lessa, R.P., Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E. & Uozumi, Y. 2011. Thunnus thynnus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T21860A9331546.Downloaded on 08 December 2016.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|