|Scientific Name:||Tapirus indicus|
|Species Authority:||Desmarest, 1819|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Despite the wide distribution range and isolation (e.g. Sumatra) the Thai/Myanmar, the Malaysian/Southern Thailand and the Sumatran individuals cannot be genetically separated (Rovie-Ryan et al. 2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bcd+3bcd; C1 ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Traeholt, C., Novarino, W., bin Saaban, S., Shwe, N.M., Lynam, A., Zainuddin, Z., Simpson, B. & bin Mohd, S.|
|Contributor(s):||Holden, J., Kawanishi, K., Martyr, D. & van Strien, N.J.|
This species is listed as Endangered due to a past and ongoing population decline estimated from loss of available habitat, fragmentation of remaining habitat and increasing loss of individuals due to hunting, road-kills and bi-catches by snare hunters. Population declines are estimated to have been greater than 50% in the past three generations (36 years) driven primarily by large scale conversion of tapir habitat to palm oil plantations and other human dominated land-use. The rate of reduction in population is inferred to be proportional to the reduction of the tropical rainforest area in southeast Asia over the same period. However the population decline is estimated to be even higher due to indirect threats (roads, hunting). Furthermore there are estimated to be less than 2,500 mature individuals remaining, with an estimated continuing decline of at least 20% in the next two generations (24 years).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Tapirus indicus occurs in southern and central parts of Sumatra (Indonesia), and on the Asian mainland in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand (along the western border and on the Peninsula south to the Malaysian border, and in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary in the north), and Myanmar (south of latitude 18°N). Its occurrence can be divided into three relatively distinct sub-populations:
Native:Indonesia (Sumatera); Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The Malay Tapir occurs in three relatively distinct and, in a few cases, isolated populations - two occurring on mainland Southeast Asia (Thailand/Myanmar), Southern Thailand/Malaysia and the other the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The population on Sumatra continues to decline due to extensive loss of habitat, accidental and deliberate trapping for meat and removal of animals for zoos in Indonesia. To date, there are no reliable population estimates for Sumatra.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
T. indicus is restricted to tropical moist forest areas and occurs in both primary and secondary forest and wetland areas. The more seasonal climate in northern Myanmar, northern (= most of non-peninsula) Thailand, Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Cambodia and the harsher dry season of the forest (even in evergreen areas, excepting the eastern flanks and adjacent Vietnamese lowlands of the Annamite chain) there is likely to be the main reason this species is not found there. The Malay Tapir is also predominantly found in the lowlands and the lower montane zone in some parts of the range, although it remains common to the highest peaks in its Thai range (Steinmetz et al. 2008). It is also recorded frequently above 1,600 m in Taman Negara National Park and Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia, as well as at 2,000 m in Kerinci Sebelat National Park, Sumatra (Holden et al. 2003).
|Generation Length (years):||12|
|Use and Trade:||Tapir meat is occasionally eaten and sold in local markets. It is not a popular food. Live animals are caught for local zoos. Sport hunting for tapir is illegal but does occur.|
Tapirus indicus is threatened throughout most of its range. The primary threats to the species are large scale deforestation and increasingly, hunting. Tapir population have declined by well over 50% in Thailand and Malaysia, whereas it is suspected to be slightly less than 50% in Sumatra. The main reason for declines in the past is habitat conversion, with large tracts land being converted into palm oil plantations. However, increasingly as other large 'prey" species decline in the area hunters are beginning to look towards tapir as a food source.
The species is legally protected in all range states and the habitat of large parts of the range is protected, including several National Parks in Thailand, Myanmar, Peninsula Malaysia and Sumatra. The impact of habitat reduction/destruction on the tapir is not fully understood and needs further investigation. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.
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|Citation:||Traeholt, C., Novarino, W., bin Saaban, S., Shwe, N.M., Lynam, A., Zainuddin, Z., Simpson, B. & bin Mohd, S. 2016. Tapirus indicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T21472A45173636.Downloaded on 04 December 2016.|
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