|Scientific Name:||Tapirus indicus|
|Species Authority:||Desmarest, 1819|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Despite the wide distribution range and isolation (e.g. Sumatra) the Thai/Myanmar, the Malaysian/Southern Thailand and the Sumatran individuals cannot be genetically separated (Rovie-Ryan et al. 2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bcd+3bcd; C1 ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Traeholt, C., Novarino, W., bin Saaban, S., Shwe, N.M., Lynam, A., Zainuddin, Z., Simpson, B. & bin Mohd, S.|
|Contributor(s):||Holden, J., Kawanishi, K., Martyr, D. & van Strien, N.J.|
This species is listed as Endangered due to a past and ongoing population decline estimated from loss of available habitat, fragmentation of remaining habitat and increasing loss of individuals due to hunting, road-kills and bi-catches by snare hunters. Population declines are estimated to have been greater than 50% in the past three generations (36 years) driven primarily by large scale conversion of tapir habitat to palm oil plantations and other human dominated land-use. The rate of reduction in population is inferred to be proportional to the reduction of the tropical rainforest area in southeast Asia over the same period. However the population decline is estimated to be even higher due to indirect threats (roads, hunting). Furthermore there are estimated to be less than 2,500 mature individuals remaining, with an estimated continuing decline of at least 20% in the next two generations (24 years).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Tapirus indicus occurs in southern and central parts of Sumatra (Indonesia), and on the Asian mainland in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand (along the western border and on the Peninsula south to the Malaysian border, and in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary in the north), and Myanmar (south of latitude 18°N). Its occurrence can be divided into three relatively distinct sub-populations:
Native:Indonesia (Sumatera); Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The Malay Tapir occurs in three relatively distinct and, in a few cases, isolated populations - two occurring on mainland Southeast Asia (Thailand/Myanmar), Southern Thailand/Malaysia and the other the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The population on Sumatra continues to decline due to extensive loss of habitat, accidental and deliberate trapping for meat and removal of animals for zoos in Indonesia. To date, there are no reliable population estimates for Sumatra.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
T. indicus is restricted to tropical moist forest areas and occurs in both primary and secondary forest and wetland areas. The more seasonal climate in northern Myanmar, northern (= most of non-peninsula) Thailand, Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Cambodia and the harsher dry season of the forest (even in evergreen areas, excepting the eastern flanks and adjacent Vietnamese lowlands of the Annamite chain) there is likely to be the main reason this species is not found there. The Malay Tapir is also predominantly found in the lowlands and the lower montane zone in some parts of the range, although it remains common to the highest peaks in its Thai range (Steinmetz et al. 2008). It is also recorded frequently above 1,600 m in Taman Negara National Park and Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia, as well as at 2,000 m in Kerinci Sebelat National Park, Sumatra (Holden et al. 2003).
|Generation Length (years):||12|
|Use and Trade:||Tapir meat is occasionally eaten and sold in local markets. It is not a popular food. Live animals are caught for local zoos. Sport hunting for tapir is illegal but does occur.|
Tapirus indicus is threatened throughout most of its range. The primary threats to the species are large scale deforestation and increasingly, hunting. Tapir population have declined by well over 50% in Thailand and Malaysia, whereas it is suspected to be slightly less than 50% in Sumatra. The main reason for declines in the past is habitat conversion, with large tracts land being converted into palm oil plantations. However, increasingly as other large 'prey" species decline in the area hunters are beginning to look towards tapir as a food source.
The species is legally protected in all range states and the habitat of large parts of the range is protected, including several National Parks in Thailand, Myanmar, Peninsula Malaysia and Sumatra. The impact of habitat reduction/destruction on the tapir is not fully understood and needs further investigation. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.
Abdul Kadir, A.H. and Hassan, H. 2003. Distribution of the Malay tapir in Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary results. Paper presented at the Malay Tapir Conservation Workshop, Krau Wildlife Reserve, August 2003.
Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. and Matola, S. 1997. Tapirs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Campos-Arceiz, A., Traeholt, C., Jaffar, R., Santamaria, L. and Corlett, R.T. 2012. Asian Tapirs Are No Elephants When It Comes To Seed Dispersal. Biotropica 44: 220-227.
Cheminaud, G. 1939. Mes Chasses au Laos, volume 1. Payot, Paris, France.
Chutipong, W., Lynam, A.J., Steinmetz, R., Savini, T. and Gale, G.A. 2012. Sampling mammalian carnivores in western Thailand: Issues of rarity and detectability. Raffles Bullettin of Zoology 62: 521-535.
Clements, G.R., Rayan, D.M., Aziz, S.A., Magintan, D., Yazi, M.F., Kawanishi, K., Traeholt, C. and Tingley, R. 2012. Predicting the distribution of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in Peninsular Malaysia using maximum entropy modelling. Integrative Zoology 7: 400-406.
Corlett, R.T. 2010. Megafaunal extinctions and their consequences in the tropical Indo-Pacific. In: ANU E-Press (ed.), Terra Australis 32: Altered Ecologies: Fire, Climate and Human Influence on Terrestrial Landscapes, pp. 117-131. Canberra.
Cranbrook, E. 2012. The Malayan Tapir, Tapirus (Acrocodia) indicus: once in Borneo, and again in Borneo?. . Tapir Conservation Newsletter 21: 7.
Cranbrook, E.O. and Piper, P.J. 2009. Borneo Records of Malay Tapir, Tapirus indicus Desmarest: A Zooarchaeological and Historical Review. International of Osteoarchaeology 19: 491-507.
Duckworth, J. W. In prep.. The purported occurrence of Red Panda Ailurus fulgens in Laos: limitations to the use of a hunter's memoirs.
Duckworth, J.W., Salter, R.E. and Khounbline, K. 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Laos.
DWNP/DANCED. 2002. Krau Wildlife Reserve Management Plan.
Harper, F. 1945. Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Old World. American Committee for International Wild Life Preservation, New York, USA.
Holden, J., Yanuar, A. and Martyr, D. 2003. The Asian tapirs in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra: Evidence collected through photo-trapping. Oryx 37(1): 34-40.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Kaewsirisuk, S. 2001. Comparative study of habitat use of tapirs between edge and interior at Halabala Wildlife Sanctuary, Waeng District, Narathiwat Province, Thailand.: 21.
Kawanishi, K. 2002. Population status of tigers (Panthera tigris) in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida.
Kawanishi, K. and Sunquist, M.E. 2004. Conservation status of Tigers in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation 120(3): 329–344.
Lekagul, B. and McNeely, J.A. 1977. Mammals of Thailand. Association for the Conservation of Wildlife, Bangkok, Thailand.
Louys, J. 2012. The future of mammals in Southeast Asia: conservation insights from the fossil record. Springer Verlag.
Louys, J. 2012. Mammal community structure of Sundanese fossil assemblages from the Late Pleistocene, and a discussion on the ecological effects of the Toba eruption. Quaternary International 258: 80-87.
Louys, J. 2013. The large terrestrial carnivore guild in Quaternary Southeast Asia. Quaternary Science Rewiews.
Lynam, A.J. 1996. Distributions of large fauna with respect to the edge of a Thailand protected area. Wildlife Conservation Society (Unpublished), New York, USA.
Lynam, A.J. 1999. Camera-trapping reveals the status of Malayan tapirs in southern Thailand rainforest remnants. Tapir Conservation 9(1): 9-10.
Lynam, A.J. 2000. Effects of human land use on faunal abundance in some Thai forest reserves. Final Report to National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT). Wildlife Conservation Society, Bangkok, Thailand.
Lynam, A.J. 2003. A National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar. Myanmar Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, Yangon, Myanmar.
Lynam, A.J., Tantipisanuh, N., Chutipong, W., Ngoprasert, D., Baker, M.C., Cutter, P., Gale, G., Kitamura, S., Steinmetz, R., Sukmasuang R. and Thunhikorn, S. 2012. Comparative sensitivity to environmental variation and human disturbance of Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and other wild ungulates in Thailand. Integrative Zoology 7(4): 389-399.
Magintan, D., Traeholt, C. and Karuppannan, K.V. 2012. Displacement of the Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus) in Peninsular Malaysia from 2006 to 2010. Tapir Conservation 21: 8-13.
Malayan Tapir Action Plan. 2003. Malayan Tapir Action Plan. In: Medici, E. P., Lynam, A., Boonratana, R., Kawanishi, K., Hawa Yatim, S., Traeholt, C., Holst, B. and Miller, P. S. (eds). IUCN/SSCConservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN, USA.
Prayurasiddhi, T., Chaiwatana, S. and Napom, S. 1999. Forest Complexes in Thailand. Royal Forest Department, Prueksirin Printing, Bangkok.
Rayan, M.D., Mohamad, S.W., Dorward, L., Aziz, S.A., Clements, G.R., Wong, C.C.T., Traeholt, C. and Magintan, D. 2012. Estimating the population density of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Integrative Zoology 7: 373-380.
Rovie-Ryan, J.J., Traeholt, C., Marilyn, J.E., Zainuddin, Z.Z., Mohd Sharif, K., Elagupillay, S., Mohd Farouk, M.Y., Abdullah, A.A. and Cornelia, C.S. 2008. Sequence variation in Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) inferred using partial sequences of the cytochrome b segment of the mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 25: 16-18.
Shwe, N.M. and Lynam, T. 2012. A preliminary investigation of the status and threats to Malayan tapir Tapirus indicus in the Taninthayi Nature Reserve, Myanmar. Tapir Conservation 21: 18-23.
Simpson, B., Shukor, M.N. and Magintan, D. 2014. Food Selection of the Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus) Under Semi-Wild Conditions. AIP Conf. Proc. 1571: 317-324.
Steinmetz, R., Chutipong, W., Seuaturien, N. and Cheungsa-ad, E. 2008. Community structure of large mammals in tropical montane and lowland forest in the Tenasserim–Dawna mountains, Thailand. Biotropica 40: 344–353.
Traeholt, C. and Sanusi, M. 2009. Population estimates of Malay tapir, Tapirus indicus, by camera trapping in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapir Conservation 18/1: 18-26.
Wildlife Conservation Society. 2001. Report on "Defining, estimating and conserving the tiger populations in Thailand's forest complexes in the new millennium; A workshop for junior staff in protected areas" Kaeng Krachan National Park, Thailand. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bangkok, Thailand.
Wildlife Conservation Society. 2003. Final report: status, ecology and conservation of tigers in Peninsular Malaysia. Wildlife Conservation Society.
Yin, U.T. 1993. Wild Mammals of Myanmar. Malaysia Forest Department, Yangon.
Zainuddin, Z.Z., Ng, J.S.C., Azahar, A., and Aidi, M. 2000. Faecal fibre length in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) and the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). . Tapir Conservation 54: 341-345.
|Citation:||Traeholt, C., Novarino, W., bin Saaban, S., Shwe, N.M., Lynam, A., Zainuddin, Z., Simpson, B. & bin Mohd, S. 2016. Tapirus indicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T21472A45173636.Downloaded on 24 July 2016.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|