|Scientific Name:||Tapirus bairdii|
|Species Authority:||(Gill, 1865)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2abcd+3bcde ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Garcìa, M., Jordan, C., O'Farril, G., Poot, C., Meyer, N., Estrada, N., Leonardo, R., Naranjo, E., Simons, Á., Herrera, A., Urgilés, C., Schank, C., Boshoff, L. & Ruiz-Galeano, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Castellanos, A., Cruz-Aldán, E., Foerster, C.R., González-Maya, J.F., Lira Torres , I., Lizcano, D.J., Matola, S., Samudio Jr, R. & Schipper, J.|
Tapirus bairdii continues to be listed as Endangered. Population declines are estimated to be greater than 50% in the past three generation (33 years) mainly due to habitat loss and hunting. It is estimated that around 70% of Central American forest areas have been lost through deforestation and alteration over the last 40 years (Primack et al. 1997), in addition the species has been consistently hunted throughout most its range. We therefore estimate that the population has declined by well over 50% in the past three generations. Causes of past population reduction have not ceased. It is suspected that in next three generations the population will decline by a further 70% from loss of habitat, fragmentation and hunting pressure. Range-wide habitat change is severely impacting and fragmenting populations of T. bairdii, which do not generally occupy human dominated or modified habitat types and suffers from persecution near human settlements. In addition there is evidence to suggest that infectious diseases may contribute to the decline of the species in the future as cases are now being found in the northern portion of the range where cattle are present. Outbreaks of disease have been reported in Guatemala and Costa Rica. The construction of a road through the Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala and in other regions is likely to become a major problem for tapirs in that area. The construction of mega infrastructure (highways, dams, interoceanic canal) in different countries threatens the species, and may create additional genetic barriers. Finally severe droughts potentially as a result of climate change may have a future impact on tapir populations on the Selva Maya.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
The Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is known to occur in Southern Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, southern Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Republic of Panama, north-western Colombia (Chocò and Darien regions)(Restrepo and Betancourt 2008), and historically in El Salvador. Its current or historical presence is still uncertain in Ecuador. In Mexico, the Baird's Tapir is present in the following localities: Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo and potentially in Veracruz, Yucatan and Tabasco. In Belize T. bairdii is present in all districts while in Guatemala is present in the Department of Izabal, Petén, Alta Verapaz and Quiché, and in the Biosphere Reserve of Sienna de las Minas. In Honduras is present in several localities in the Department of Atlàntida, Cortés, El Paraiso, Gracias a Dios, Olancho and Yoro. In Nicaragua the Baird's Tapir is limited primarily to Caribbean Coast lowland tropical fortest, swamps, and seasonally flooded forests, the San Juan River, and the Bosawàs Biosphere Reserve. In Costa Rica is present in the three mountain ranges and main protected areas in lowlands (Castellanos et al. 2008). The Baird's Tapir is recorded in Republic of Panama in the provinces of Chiriqui, Bocas del Toro, Veraguas, Coclé, Colon, Panama, Guna Yala and Darién, and to sum up to the forests along the Atlantic coast.
Native:Belize; Colombia; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama
Regionally extinct:El Salvador
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There are recent reports of Baird's Tapir population in the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua (Jordan et al. 2010) and Panama (Meyer et al. 2013) where population's status were unconfirmed or thought to be extinct. Despite these new records, populations of this species are expected to be in a continuing decline due to the existing threats in the region. Also, a new report reveals the extreme rarity of the species in central Panama where it was thought to be resident (N. Meyer pers. comm.).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
The Baird’s Tapir is found in forested areas with ponds and streams (wet tropical rainforest, tropical subdeciduous forest and montane cloud forests), palm swamps, paramo, mangrove, riparian forest, and successional vegetation (caused by natural disturbances), as well as in narrow oak- forest strips covering the top of medium-altitude mountains; from sea level to 3,620 m (Brooks et al. 1997, Naranjo and Vaughan 2000).
|Generation Length (years):||11|
|Use and Trade:||This species is hunted locally for food and to be trade as pets. It is also hunted for sport in Costa Rica.|
The main factors of Baird’s population decline remain habitat destruction and localized hunting (Castellanos et al. 2008, Brooks et al. 1997). The species low reproductive rate makes it more vulnerable to these threats (Brooks et al. 1997).
This species occurs in several protected areas throughout its range including some large Biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife refuges, comarcas (indigenous territories in Panama which make up a large part of tapir’s habitat), and other small to medium sized reserves. There are also important suitable habitat patches with no protected status in Mexico (Mendoza et al. 2012), Belize (Waters and Ulloa 2007), Guatemala and Nicaragua, and possibly in the other countries.
Aide, T.M., Clark, M.L., Grau, R., López-Carr, D., Levy, M.A., Redo, D., Bonilla-Moheno, M., Riner, G., Andrade-Núñez, M.J. and Muñiz, M. 2012. Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001–2010). . Biotropica 0: 1-10.
Brooks, D.M., Bodmer, R.E. and Matola, S. 1997. Tapirs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Carrillo, E., Wong, G. and Cuarón, A. 2000. Monitoring mammal populations in Costa Rican protected areas under different hunting restrictions. Conservation Biology 14: 1580-1591.
Castellanos, A., Foerester, C., Lizcano, D.J., Naranjo, E., Cruz-Aldan, E., Lira-Torres, I., Samudio, R., Matola, S., Schipper, J. and Gonzalez-Maya. J. 2008. Tapirus bairdii. (Accessed: 17 November 2014).
Contreras-Moreno, F.M., Hidalgo-Mihart, M.G., Pérez-Solano, L.A. and Vásquez-Maldonado, Y.A. 2013. Nuevo registro de tapir centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii) atropellado en el noroeste del estado de Campeche, México. . Tapir Conservation Newsletter 20: 22-25.
Cove, M.V., Pardo-Vargas, L.E., de la Cruz, J.C., Spinola, R.M., Jackson, V.L., Saénz, J.C. and Chassot, O. 2013. Factors influencing the occurrence of the endangered Baird’s tapir Tapirus bairdii: potential flagship species for a Costa Rican biological corridor. Oryx 48: 402-409.
Cruz Aldán, E., Lira-Torres, I., Güiris Andrade, D.M., Osorio Sarabia, D. and Quintero, T. 2006. Parásitos del tapir centroamericano Tapirusbairdii (Perissodactyla:Tapiridas) en Chiapas, México. Revista de Biología Tropical 54: 445-450.
Dunn, M., Estrada, N. and Smith, D.A. 2011. The coexistente of Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and indigenous hunters in northeastern Honduras. Integrative Zoology 54: 445-450.
Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.
Escamilla, A., Sanvicente, M., Sosa, M. and Galindo-Leal, C. 2000. Habitat mosaic, wildlife availability, and hunting in the tropical forest of Calakmul, Mexico.
García, M.J. and Leonardo, R. 2016. Classification of potential habitat of the Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii Gill, 1865) for their conservation in Guatemala. Therya 7(1): 107-121.
García, M., Leonardo, R., Castillo, F., Gómez, I., and García, L. 2010. Efecto de la cacería en la viabilidad poblacional del tapir (Tapirus bairdii) en el Parque Nacional Laguna Lachuá, Guatemala. Revista Científica de la Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala 19: 33-36.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Jordan, C.A., Galeano, M.R. and Alonzo, A.S. 2014. La Cacería Historica de Tapires Centroamericanos (Tapirus bairdii) en la RAAS, Nicaragua. Estudios Ambientales 1: 73-87.
Jordan, C.A., Stevens, K.J., Urquhart, G.R., Kramer, D.B. and Roe, K. 2010. A New Record of Baird’s Tapir Tapirus bairdii in Nicaragua and Potential Implications. Tapir Conservation 19/1: 11-15.
Koster, J.M. 2007. Assessing the sustainability of Baird’s tapir hunting in the Bosawas Reserve, Nicaragua. Tapir Conservation Newsletter 15/2: 23-28.
McCann, N., Wheeler, P., Coles, T. and Bruford, M. 2012. Rapid ongoing decline of Baird's tapir in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Integrative Zoology 7(4): 420-428.
McCann, N., Wheeler, P. M., Coles, T., and Bruford, M.W. 2011. Rapid ongoing decline of Baird’s tapir in Cusuco National Park, Hondura. Integrative Zoology 7: 420-428.
Medici, E.P., Carrillo, L., Montenegro, O.L., Miller, P.S., Carbonell, F., Chassot, O., Cruz-Aldán, E., García, M., Estrada-Andino, N., Shoemaker, A.H. and Mendoza, A. 2005. Baird’s Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) Conservation Workshop Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA). Baird’s Tapir Conservation Workshop: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG) & IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG).
Mendoza, E., Fuller, T. L., Thomassen, H.A., Buermann, W., Ramírez-Mejía, D. and Smith, T.B. 2012. A preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor of protecting potential Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) habitat in southern Mexico. Integrative Zoology 8: 35-47.
Meyer, N., Moreno, R. and Jansen, P.A. 2013. Distribution and conservation of the Baird’s tapir in Panama. Tapir Conservation Newletter 22: 10-13.
Naranjo, E. 2009. Ecology and Conservation of Baird’s tapir in Mexico. Tropical Conservation Science 2: 140-158.
Naranjo, E.J. and Vaughan, C. 2000. Ampliación del ámbitoaltitudinal del Tapir centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii). Revista de Biologia Tropical 48: 724.
O’Farrill, G., Gauthier Schampaert, K., Rayfield, B., Bodin, Ö., Calmé, S., Sengupta, R. and Gonzalez, A. , 2014. The Potential Connectivity of Waterhole Networks and the Effectiveness of a Protected Area under Various Drought Scenarios. PLoS ONE 9(5): e95049.
Petracca, L.S., Hernández-Potosme, S., Obando-Sampson, L., Salom-Pérez, R., Quigley, H. and Robinson, H.S. 2014. Agricultural encroachment and lack of enforcement threaten connectivity of range-wide jaguar (Panthera onca) corridor. Journal for nature conservation 22(5): 436-444.
Primack, R.B., Bray, D., Galleti, H. and Ponciano, I. 1997. Timber, tourists, and temples: conservation and development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico. Island Press, Washington DC, USA.
Reid, F. 2009. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Reid, F.A. 1997. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York.
Restrepo, H. F., and Betancourt, O. 2007. Confirmación de la presencia del tapir centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii) en Colombia, y estudio preliminar sobre algunos aspectos de su historia natural en el Parque Nacional Natural Los Katíos. Tapir Conservation Newsletter 15/2: 29-36.
Sanchez-Nuñez, E., Samayoa-Valiente, R., Henríquez-Ortíz, S., and Guzmán-Serrano, V. 2007. About the possible return of Baird’s tapir to El Salvador. Tapir Conservation Newsletter 16/1: 20-23.
Schank, C., Mendoza, E., García, M.J., Cove, M.V., Jordan, C.A., O‘Farrill, G., Meyer, N., Lizcano, D.J., Estrada, N., Poot, C. and Leonardo, R. 2015. Integrating current range-wide occurrence data with species distribution models to map the potential distribution of Baird’s Tapir. Tapir Conservation 24: 15-25.
Waters, S., and Ulloa, O. 2007. Ocurrence of Baird’s tapir outside protected areas in Belize. Tapir Conservation Newsletter 16/1: 17-20.
Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. 2005. Mammal Species of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
|Citation:||Garcìa, M., Jordan, C., O'Farril, G., Poot, C., Meyer, N., Estrada, N., Leonardo, R., Naranjo, E., Simons, Á., Herrera, A., Urgilés, C., Schank, C., Boshoff, L. & Ruiz-Galeano, M. 2016. Tapirus bairdii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T21471A45173340.Downloaded on 24 March 2017.|
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