Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Suidae

Scientific Name: Sus ahoenobarbus
Species Authority: Huet, 1888
Common Name(s):
English Palawan Bearded Pig
Sus balabacensis Forsyth Major, 1897
Sus barbatus Huet, 1888 subspecies ahoenobarbus
Sus calamianensis Heude, 1892
Sus palavensis Nehring, 1889
Taxonomic Notes: Formerly treated as a subspecies of S. barbatus, but elevated to a full species by Groves (2001) and Lucchini et al. (2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Oliver, W.
Reviewer(s): Leus, K. & Oliver, W. ( Pig, Peccary & Hippo Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is less than 20,000 km², its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat, and in the number of mature individuals due to over-hunting.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Rare (R)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the Philippines, where it is restricted to the Palawan Faunal Region (Caldecott et al. 1993). The species is known from many locations on Palawan mainland, and is confirmed from Busuanga and Calauit, and reported from diverse other Calamian islands, including Culion and Coron (Rico and Oliver, unpubl). It is also reported from Dumaran to the east of Palawan, and from Balabac and some neighbouring islands to the south of Palawan (Oliver 1995 and unpublished; Heaney et al. 1998).
Countries occurrence:
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species remains relatively widely, if patchily, distributed. Although still locally common in some areas, it is in decline due to habitat attrition and heavy hunting pressure in many areas (Caldecott et al. 1993, Oliver 1992, Esselstyn et al. 2004).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occurs in forest habitats (including fragmented forest) from sea level to montane forest at 1,500 m (Esselstyn et al. 2004) in a wide range of habitats: from primary and secondary forest to cultivated and managed areas, even neighbouring human habitations (Rabor 1986).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is heavily hunted throughout most of its range on the Palawan mainland and offshore islands. Hunting methods include snares, low caliber rifles, and small, baited explosive devices known as ‘‘pig bombs’’ (Esselstyn et al. 2004). It is also threatened by encroachment into forest areas (slash and burn agriculture). Due to the geography of Palawan, edge effects are a major problem. However, hybridization with free-ranging domesticates of ex-S. scrofa origin, which besets other Philippine wild pig species ,is not known to be a threat to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is legally protected by Philippine wildlife protection legislation, including a whole suite of legislation pertaining to the Palawan region. However, implementation of such legislation is generally poorly enforced in most areas – including some designated ‘protected areas’. Priority requirements therefore include the more effective implementation of existing legislation, and addition of new protected areas in key areas, if possible designed to enable greater management control by local governmental authorities than is the case under the existing national protected areas system. Recommendations pertaining to the management of wild pigs in non-protected areas to enable their continued harvest on a sustainable basis (Blouch 1995) are also unlikely to be effectively implemented at the present time.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Blouch, R. A. 1995. Conservation and research priorities for threatened suids of south and southeast Asia. Ibex - Journal of Mountain Ecology 3: 21-25.

Caldecott, J. O., Blouch, R. A. and MacDonald, A. A. 1993. The Bearded pig (Sus barbatus). In: W. L. R. Oliver (ed.), Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 136-145. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Esselstyn, J.A., Widmann, P. and Heaney, L.R. 2004. The mammals of Palawan Island, Philippines. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117(3): 271-302.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Taxonomy of wild pigs of Southeast Asia. IUCN/SSC Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group (PPHSG) Newsletter 1(1): 3-4.

Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N.R., Lepiten, M.V., Oliver, W.L.R., Ong, P.S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 88: 1–61.

Lucchini, V., Meijaard, E., Diong, C. H., Groves, C. P. and Randi, E. 2005. New phylogenetic perspectives among species of South-east Asian wild pig (Sus sp.) based on mtDNA sequences and morphometric data. Journal of Zoology (London) 266: 25-35.

Oliver, W. L. R. 1992. The taxonomy, distribution, and status of Philippine wild pigs. Silliman Journal 36: 55-64.

Oliver, W. L. R. 1995. Taxonomy and Conservation Status of the Suiformes - An Overview. Ibex, Journal of Mountain Ecology 3: 3-5.

Rabor, D.S. 1986. Guide to the Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Centre. Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines.

Citation: Oliver, W. 2008. Sus ahoenobarbus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T21177A9246493. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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