|Scientific Name:||Arctocephalus pusillus|
|Species Authority:||(Schreber, 1775)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Phoca pusilla Schreber, 1775
The two recognized subspecies of Afro-Australian Fur Seal, the Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) and the Australian Fur Seal (A. p. doriferus), are almost identical in both anatomy and behaviour (Warnecke and Shaughnessy 1985). Repenning et al. (1971) accorded them subspecific status based on one cranial character and separate geographic ranges. Very low genetic divergence indicates that they split relatively recently, with the Australian subspecies being the more recently established (Lento et al. 1997, Wynen et al. 2001), possibly derived as a consequence of late Pleistocene/Holocene (~12,000 years before present) migration events from southern Africa to southern Australia via west-wind drift across the Indian Ocean (Deméré et al. 2003, Lancaster et al. 2010, Wynen et al. 2001).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Kirkman, S., Meÿer, M. & Roux, J.-P|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Lowry, L., Ahonen, H., Pollock, C.M., Chiozza, F. & Battistoni, A.|
Abundance of Cape Fur Seals is estimated to be approximately 2,000,000 animals, while that of Australian Fur Seals is 120,000. No subpopulations exist for either subspecies and no localities are isolated from any others. Total abundance for each subspecies is estimated to have increased over the past three generations. Cape Fur Seal abundance has been stable over the past two generations while Australian Fur Seals increased up to 2007, but have since experienced a 6% mean annual decrease in pup production. It is unknown whether this apparent reduction is due to a poor pupping season in 2013/14, or if it represents a real decline in the population. Fluctuations in the abundance of Cape Fur Seals have been seen in the southern Namibian rookeries as a result of poor environmental conditions affecting prey populations. No major threats currently put any of the breeding sites at risk of extinction. Australian Fur Seals are subject to persistent bycatch mortality from trawl fisheries in part of their range, and both subspecies may be affected by global climate change should it have impacts upon their abiotic environment or prey species. Smaller island rookeries of both subspecies are possibly more vulnerable to such changes. The Afro-Australian Fur Seal does not meet the IUCN criteria for any threatened category and should be listed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Cape Fur Seals range along the southwestern and southern coasts of Africa, from Ilha dos Tigres in southern Angola, along the coast of Namibia to Algoa Bay in South Africa (Kirkman et al. 2013, Oosthuizen 1991). Sightings of vagrants are limited to one record from Gabon (Thibault 1999) and one from the Prince Edward Islands, South Africa (Kerley 1983). Australian Fur Seals are endemic to southeastern Australian waters and are found from the coasts of Tasmania, New South Wales, Victoria and across to South Australia with the centre of their distribution in Bass Strait (Kirkwood et al. 2010). The ranges of both subspecies are expanding, with the new colonies established in the last decade (Kirkman et al. 2007, Kirkwood et al. 2010, Shaughnessy et al. 2010, Kirkman et al. 2013, McIntosh et al. 2014, Shaughnessy et al. 2014). While both subspecies seldom move beyond the continental shelves, Cape Fur Seals have been recorded up to 220 km offshore (Shaughnessy 1979).
Native:Angola (Angola); Australia (New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria); Namibia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Marion-Prince Edward Is. - Vagrant, Western Cape)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – southwest
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||828836|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||19612766|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Number of Locations:||61|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||No|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||50|
|Lower depth limit (metres):||204|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Estimates indicate that approximately two million Cape Fur Seals bred at some 40 colonies or colony groups in 2009. However, there have been substantial changes in distribution during this time period with an increase in the number of colonies, a northward shift in range and an increase in abundance in some areas (northern Namibia and northwestern South Africa; Kirkman et al. 2013). In 2004 some 75% of Cape Fur Seals bred at three sites: the Atlas Bay-Wolf Bay-Long Islands Complex and Cape Cross in Namibia, and Kleinzee in South Africa (Kirkman et al. 2007). All of these sites have experienced small declines in abundance since that time (Kirkman et al. 2013). Most of the smaller rookeries are estimated to contain more than 1,000 adults. While the abundances of the larger rookeries are relatively stable, they do experience fluctuations. Fluctuations are greater in southern Namibian rookeries (Kirkman et al. 2013) which have experienced major mortality events due to the impact of poor environmental conditions on prey populations (Gammelsrød et al. 1998, Gerber and Hilborn 2001). Smaller rookeries tend to experience greater fluctuations than larger rookeries (Kirkman et al. 2007, 2013).
While rookeries of Cape Fur Seals are separated by between a few to several hundred kilometres, tag data (Oosthuizen 1991) and genetic evidence (Matthee et al. 2006) indicate substantial movement between them and no distinct subpopulations.
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Afro-Australian Fur Seals are the largest of all Fur Seals. Mean asymptotic mass and length of males is 229 kg (range 218-360 kg) and 221 cm (range 201-227 cm), and females are 85 kg (range 41-113 kg) and 163 cm (136-171 cm; Arnould and Warneke 2002, Kirkwood and Goldsworthy 2013). Pups at birth are 60-80 cm in length and weigh 5-12 kg. The Cape Fur Seal is slightly smaller (Warneke 1995).
While Cape Fur Seals forage in both pelagic and benthic environments (Kooyman and Gentry 1986, David 1987b, Stewardson 2001), Australian Fur Seals are primarily benthic feeders (Arnould and Kirkwood 2008, Kirkwood and Arnould 2011, Kirkwood and Goldsworthy 2013). Characteristics of dives vary between sites (Kooyman and Gentry 1986, Stewardson 2001, Arnould and Kirkwood 2008, Kirkwood and Arnould 2011). The majority of recorded dives of Cape Fur Seals on the west coast of South Africa are to less than 50 m depth (Kooyman and Gentry 1986), while those on the southeast coast are to more than 60 m (Stewardson 2001). Mean dive duration of Cape Fur Seals varies between one minute (Stewardson 2001) and 2.1 minutes (Kooyman and Gentry 1986). Foraging dives by lactating Australian Fur Seal females are usually to 65–85 m with a maximum depth of 164 m, and dives usually last from 2.0-3.7 minutes, with a maximum duration of 8.9 minutes (Arnould and Hindell 2001). The diurnal frequency of Cape Fur Seal dives shows a bimodal distribution with most dives taking place at dusk or during the first half of the night, with a smaller peak after dawn (Kooyman and Gentry 1986, Stewardson 2001). The maximum recorded diving depth is 204 m (Kooyman and Gentry 1986).
Cape Fur Seals are generalist foragers that take a wide variety of prey, including Cape Hake, Horse Mackerel, Pelagic Goby, Pilchards, Anchovy, squid of the genus Loligo, Rock Lobster, shrimp, prawns and amphipods (David 1987b, de Bruyn et al. 2003, Mecenero et al. 2006). They have also been reported to occasionally take African Penguins and several species of flying seabirds (Makhado et al. 2006). Australian Fur Seals eat a wide range of fish species including Redbait, Leatherjacket species, Jack Mackerel, Barracouta, Red Rock Cod and Flathead (Goldsworthy et al. 2003, Hume et al. 2004, Page et al. 2005, Littnan et al. 2007, Kirkwood et al. 2008, Deagle et al. 2009). Cephalopods are also important prey with key species being Gould’s Squid, Octopus spp., and Cuttlefish (Hume et al. 2004, Page et al. 2005, Kirkwood et al. 2008).
Great White Sharks (Pemberton and Kirkwood 1994, Martin et al. 2005) and Killer Whales (Rice and Saayman 1987) are predators of Afro-Australian Fur Seals at sea. On shore, Cape Fur Seal pups are preyed on by Black-backed Jackals and Brown Hyenas (Skinner et al. 1995, Oosthuizen et al. 1997, Kuhn et al. 2008).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Generation Length (years):||9.1|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Use and Trade:||
The commercial harvesting of Cape Fur Seals in South Africa ceased in 1990 (Wickens et al. 1991) and is now prohibited under terms of the Policy on the Management of Seals, Seabirds and Shorebirds (MLRA 2007).
Cape Fur Seals continue to be harvested commercially and hunted for trophies in Namibia under permits issued in terms of the Marine Resources Act of 2000 (Campbell et al. 2011). The most profitable product is thought to be male genitalia (Kirkman 2006), but others products are pelts, leather products, oil, meat, and bone meal for consumption (Campbell et al. 2011). In 2010, 43,168 pups and 4,573 adult males were harvested, while the 2011 harvest was 45,794 pups and 3,626 adult males (Japp et al. 2012).
The Australian Fur Seal is not harvested.
Cape and Australian Fur Seals were hunted heavily during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries and populations of both were reduced to low levels (Warnecke and Shaughnessy 1985, David 1987a). Under protection, both have recovered, although the Cape subspecies to a much greater extent than the Australian subspecies, which has not returned to estimated pre-exploitation levels (Kirkman et al. 2013; Kirkwood et al. 2005). Levels of exploitation of Cape Fur Seals were not as severe as those experienced by other species of Fur Seals and genetic variation remains high (Matthee et al. 2006).
Harvests of Cape Fur Seals in South Africa were first controlled in 1893 and were suspended in 1990 (Wickens et al. 1991). Harvesting continues in Namibia at the mainland colonies of Cape Cross and the Wolf and Atlas Bays group (Japp et al. 2012). Harvest levels have remained high even in years with high levels of pup and adult natural mortality (Japp et al. 2012, Kirkman et al. 2007). This mortality has been attributed to a scarcity of fish and poor marine productivity along the coast of Namibia, which occurs at intervals (Gammelsrød et al. 1998, Gerber and Hilborn 2001). Australian Fur Seals are not harvested.
Cape Fur Seals are reported to interact with commercial fisheries, both via direct competition and operationally. A number of commercially exploited species of fish are eaten by Seals (David 1987b, Wickens et al. 1992). While the effects of these interactions are difficult to assess due to the complexities of the marine food web and the range of species that Seals prey on (David 1987b, Punt and Butterworth 1995), it is possible that changes in fishing effort and changes in the abundance and distribution of commercially harvested fish species may result in reduced prey populations (Barange et al. 1999, Roy et al. 2007, Moloney et al. 2013, Roux et al. 2013). The impact of direct mortality of Cape Fur Seals due to fisheries is not well known and the effects of current interactions have not been studied. Seals have been taken incidentally in past fishing operations and levels of take have been estimated to be low (Wickens et al. 1992, David and Wickens 2003). A number are also shot illegally during fishing operations (Wickens et al. 1992).
While climate change does not pose the same level of threat to the Afro-Australian Fur Seals as it does for many other species of pinnipeds, it remains important (Kovacs et al. 2012). Climate mediated changes in prey species (Barange et al. 1999, Roy et al. 2007, Moloney et al. 2013, Roux et al. 2013) may be responsible for changes in the distribution of rookeries of Cape Fur Seals (Kirkman et al. 2013). It is also possible that climate change was responsible for recent periods of high mortality along the Namibian coast (Gammelsrød et al. 1998, Gerber and Hilborn 2001). Pups are vulnerable to high temperatures (De Villiers and Roux 1992), and changes leading to higher ambient temperatures and fewer windy days may increase mortality (Kovacs et al. 2012). A number of pups are born on small and low lying islands (Kirkwood et al. 2010, Kirkman et al. 2013) and are susceptible to high mortality during summer storms (Hofmeyr et al. 2011). Rising sea levels and possible changes in the frequency of such storms induced by climate change will threaten such colonies with extirpation.
Entanglement in marine debris poses a potential threat to the Afro-Australian Fur Seals (Shaughnessy 1999, Lynch et al. 2011ab, Kirkwood and Goldsworthy 2013). Rates of entanglement vary by colony, but have been estimated to be between 0.12%-0.66% for the Cape Fur Seal (Shaughnessy 1980).
Like all Fur Seals, Afro-Australian Fur Seals are vulnerable to oil spills because of their dependence on their thick pelage for thermoregulation (Bonner 1978). Cape Fur Seals come in regular contact with a number of species of terrestrial carnivores, and both subspecies are at risk of exposure to viruses and other disease types that could lead to epidemics (Lavigne and Schmitz 1990, Kirkman 2006).
Both subspecies are visited by tourists at a number of colonies. Disturbance is believed to be minimal (Kirkwood et al. 2003).
Australian Fur Seals are protected nationally by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). They are also protected in all Australian states in which they occur by state-specific legislation (National Seal Strategy Group and Stewardson 2007).
Although Cape Fur Seals have been protected in South Africa since 1893 by the Fish Protection Act, and in Namibia since 1922 by the Sealing and Fisheries Proclamation, they were still subject to government run or government authorized commercial harvests (Wickens et al. 1991, Butterworth et al. 1995, David and Wickens 2003). Harvests ceased in South Africa in 1990 (Wickens et al. 1991) but continue in Namibia (Japp et al. 2012). In South Africa the Sea Birds and Seals Protection Act of 1973, provides broad protection for Seals. Furthermore, the commercial killing of Seals is now prohibited in South Africa under terms of the Policy on the Management of Seals, Seabirds and Shorebirds (MLRA 2007). While the conservation and harvesting of Seals in Namibia was previously controlled by the Sea Birds and Seals Protection Act, this has been replaced by the Marine Resources Act of 2000 which relaxed restrictions aimed at ensuring a humane harvest (Kirkman 2006, Algers et al. 2007).
Algers, B., Blokhuis, H.J., Broom, D.M., Costa, P., Domingo, M., Greiner, M., Guemene, D., Hartung, J., Koenen, F., Muller-Graf, C., Morton, D.B., Osterhaus, A., Pfeiffer, D.U., Roberts, R., Sanaa, M., Salman, M., Sharp, J.M., Vannier, P., Wierup, M. and Wooldridge, M. 2007. Scientific opinion of the panel on animal health and welfare on a request from the Commission on the animal welfare aspects of the killing and skinning of seals. The European Food Safety Authority Journal 610: 1-123.
Arnould, J.P.Y. and Hindell, M.A. 2001. Dive behaviour, foraging locations, and maternal-attendance patterns of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 35-48.
Arnould, J.P.Y. and Kirkwood, R. 2008. Habitat selection in a benthic diver: the foraging areas of female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 17: S53-S67.
Barange, M., Hampton, I. and Roel, B.A. 1999. Trends in the abundance and distribution of anchovy and sardine on the South African continental shelf in the 1990s, deduced from acoustic surveys. South African Journal of Marine Science 21: 367-391.
Berta, A. and Churchill, M. 2011. Pinniped taxonomy: review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description. Mammal Review 42: 207-234.
Bonner, W. N. 1978. Man's impact on seals. Mammal Review 8: 3-13.
Butterworth, D.S., Punt, A.E. and Wickens, P.A. 1995. The effects of future consumption by the Cape fur seal on catches and catch rates of the Cape hakes. 3. Modelling the dynamics of the Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus. South African Journal of Marine Science 16: 161-183.
Campbell, R., Knowles, T. and O’Connor, S. 2011. A report for Humane Society International, World Society for the Protection of Animals, Bont Voor Dieren (NL) and Respect for Animals (UK), prepared by Economists at Large.
David, J. and Wickens, P. 2003. Management of Cape fur seals and fisheries in South Africa. In: N.J. Gales, M.A. Hindell and R. Kirkwood (eds), Marine mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues, pp. 116-135. CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia.
David, J.H.M. 1987a. South African fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus. In: J. P. Croxall and R. L. Gentry (eds), Status, biology, and ecology of fur seals, pp. 73-77. NOAA Techn. Rep. NMFS 51.
David, J.H.M. 1987b. Diet of the South African (Cape) fur seal (1974-1 985) and an assessment of competition with fisheries in southern Africa. South African Journal of Marine Science 5: 693-713.
David, J.H.M. and Rand, R.W. 1986. Attendance behaviour of South African fur seals. In: R.L. Gentry and G.L. Kooyman (eds), Fur seals: maternal strategies on land and at sea, pp. 126-141. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Deagle, B.E., Kirkwood, R. and Jarman, S.N. 2009. Evaluating trophic links by pyrosequencing prey DNA in faeces: a population level dietary study on Australian fur seals. Molecular Ecology 18: 2022-2038.
de Bruyn, P.J.N., Bester, M.N., Mecenero, S., Kirkman, S.P., Roux, J.-P. and Klages, N.T.W. 2003. Temporal variation of cephalopods in the diet of Cape fur seals in Namibia. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 33: 85-96.
Deméré, T.A., Berta, A. and Adam, P.J. 2003. Pinnipedimorph evolutionary biogeography. Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History 279: 32-76.
De Villiers, D. and Roux, J.-P. 1992. Mortality of newborn pups of the South African fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus in Namibia. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 881-889.
Gamel, C.M., Davis, R.W., David, J.H.M. and Meÿer M.A. 2005. Reproductive energetics and females attendance patterns of Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) during early lactation. American Midland Naturalist 153: 152-170.
Gammelsrød, T., Bartholomae, C.H., Boyer, D.C., Filipe, V.L.L. and O’Toole, M.J. 1998. Intrusion of warm surface water along the Angolan-Namibian coast in February-March 1995: The 1995 Benguela N. Journal of Marine Science 19: 41-56.
Gerber, L.R. and Hilborn, R. 2001. Catastrophic events and recovery from low densities in populations of otariids: implications for risk of extinction. Mammal Review 31(2): 131-150.
Goldsworthy, S.D., Bulman, C., He, X., Larcombe, J. and Littnan, C.L. 2003. Trophic interactions between marine mammals and Australian fisheries: an ecosystem approach. Marine mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues, pp. 62-99. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Goldsworthy, S.D., Pemberton, D. and Warneke, R.M. 1997. Field identification of Australian and New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.). In: M.A. Hindell and C. Kemper (eds), Marine Mammal Research in Australia and New Zealand, pp. 63-71. Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Hamer, D.J. and Goldsworthy, S.D. 2006. Seal–fishery operational interactions: Identifying the environmental and operational aspects of a trawl fishery that contribute to by-catch and mortality of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Biological Conservation 130: 517-529.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Du Toit, M. and Kirkman, S.P. 2011. Early post-release survival of stranded Cape fur seal pups at Black Rocks, Algoa Bay. African Journal of Marine Science 33: 453-461.
Hume, F., Hindell, M.A., Pemberton, D. and Gales, R. 2004. Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of a high trophic level predator, the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Marine Biology 144: 407-415.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Japp, D.W., Purves, M.G. and Wilkinson, S. 2012. Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem: State of the Stocks Review. Report No. 2 (2012). Benguela Current Commission. Capricorn Fisheries Monitoring, Cape Town, South Africa.
Kerley, G.I.H. 1983. Record for the Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus for subantarctic Marion Island. South African Journal of Zoology 18: 139-140.
Kirkman, S.P. 2006. Warfare to welfare: southern Africa’s dynamic seal-human interface. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Cape Town, South Africa.
Kirkman, S.P., Oosthuizen, W.H., Meyer, M.A., Kotze, P.G.H , Roux, J.-P. and Underhill, L.G. 2007. Making sense of censuses and dealing with missing data: trends in pup counts of Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus for the period 1972-2004. South African Journal of Marine Science 29: 161-176.
Kirkman, S.P., Yemane, D., Oosthuizen, W.H., Meÿer, M.A., Kotze, P.G.H., Skrypzeck, H., Vaz Velho, F. and Underhill, L.G. 2013. Spatio-temporal shifts of the dynamic Cape fur seal population in southern Africa, based on aerial censuses (1972-2009). Marine Mammal Science 29: 497-524.
Kirkwood, R. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2011. Foraging trip strategies and habitat use during late pup rearing by lactating Australian fur seals. Australian Journal of Zoology 59(4): 216-226.
Kirkwood, R. and Goldsworthy, S.D. 2013. Fur Seals and Sea Lions. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.
Kirkwood, R., Boren, L., Shaughnessy, P.D., Szteren, D., Mawson, P., Hückstädt, L., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Oosthuizen, H., Campagna, C. and Berris, M. 2003. Pinniped-focused tourism in the Southern Hemisphere: a review of the industry. In: N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood (eds), Marine mammals and humans: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, pp. 257-276. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.
Kirkwood, R., Gales, R., Terauds, A., Arnould, J.P.Y., Pemberton, D., Shaughnessy, P.D., Mitchell, A.T. and Gibbens, J. 2005. Pup production and population trends of the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Marine Mammal Science 21(2): 260-282.
Kirkwood, R., Hume, F. and Hindell, M. 2008. Sea temperature variations mediate annual changes in the diet of Australian fur seals in Bass Strait. Marine Ecology Progress Series 369: 297-309.
Kirkwood, R., Pemberton, D., Gales, R., Hoskins, A.J., Mitchell, A., Shaughnessy, P.D. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2010. Continued population recovery by Australian fur seals. Marine and Freshwater Research 61: 695-701.
Knuckey, I.A., Eayrs, S. and Bosschietter, B. 2002. Options for reducing incidental catch of seals on wet-boats in the SETF: a preliminary report. Final Report to the Australian Fisheries Management Authority. ARF Project R01/0887. Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute.
Kooyman, G.L. and Gentry, R.L. 1986. Diving behaviour of South African fur seals. In: R.L. Gentry and G.L. Kooyman (eds), Fur seals - maternal strategies on land and at sea, pp. 142-152. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Kovacs, K.M., Aguilar, A., Aurioles, D., Burkanov, V., Campagna, C., Gales, N.J., Gelatt, T., Goldsworthy, S.D., Goodman, S.J., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Härkönen, T., Lowry, L., Lydersen, L., Schipper, J., Sipilä, T., Southwell, C., Thompson, D. and Trillmich, F. 2012. Global threats to pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science 28: 414-436.
Kuhn, B.F., Wiesel, I. and Skinner, J.D. 2008. Diet of brown hyaenas (Parahyaena brunnea) on the Namibian coast. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 63: 1-8.
Lancaster, M.L., Arnould, J.P.Y. and Kirkwood, R. 2010. Genetic status of an endemic marine mammal, the Australian fur seal, following historical harvesting. Animal Conservation 13: 247-255.
Lavigne D.M. and Schmitz, O.J. 1990. Global warming and increasing population densities: a prescription for seal plagues. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21: 280-284.
Lento, G.M., Haddon. M., Chambers, G.K. and Baker, C.S. 1997. Genetic variation of southern hemisphere fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.): Investigation of population structure and species identity. Journal of Heredity 88(3): 202-208.
Littnan, C.L., Arnould, J., P.Y. and Harcourt, R.G. 2007. Effect of proximity to the shelf edge on the diet of female Australian fur seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 338: 257-267.
Lyle, J.M. and Willcox, S.T. 2008. Dolphin and seal interactions with mid-water trawling in the Small Pelagic Fishery, including an assessment of bycatch mitigation strategies. Final Report Project R05/0996. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute and Australian Fisheries Management Authority.
Lynch, M., Duignan, P.J., Taylor, T., Nielsen, O., Kirkwood, R., Gibbens, J. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2011a. Epidemiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47: 352-363.
Lynch, M., Kirkwood, R., Mitchell, A. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2011b. Prevalence and significance of an alopecia syndrome in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Journal of Mammalogy 92: 342-351.
Makhado, A.B., Crawford, R.J.M. and Underhill, L.G. 2006. Impact of predation by cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus on Cape gannets Morus capensis at Malgas Island, Western Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 28(3-4): 681-687.
Martin, A.R., Hammerschlag, N., Collier, R.S. and Fallows, C. 2005. Predatory behaviour of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) at Seal Island, South Africa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 85: 1121-1135.
Matthee, C.A., Fourie, F., Oosthuizen, W.H., Meÿer, M.A. and Tolley, K.A. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data of the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) suggest that population numbers may be affected by climatic shifts. Marine Biology 148: 899-905.
McIntosh, R.R., Sutherland, D., Dann, P., Kirkwood, R., Thalman, S., Alderman, R., Arnould, J.P.Y., Mitchell, A., Kirkman, S., Salton, M. and Slip, D. 2014. Pup production of Australian and New Zealand fur seals between 2007 and 2014. Report by the Phillip Island Nature Park.
Mecenero, S., Kirkman, S.P. and Roux, J.-P. 2006. A dynamic fish consumption model for lactating Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus based on scat analyses. Journal of Marine Science 63: 1551–1566.
MLRA. 2007. Policy on the Management of Seals, Seabirds and Shorebirds, 2007. Marine Living Resources Act, 1998. Government Gazette no. 30534.
Moloney, C.L., Fennessey, S.T., Gibbons, M.J., Roychoudhury, A., Shillington, F.A. von der Heyden, B.P. and Watermeyer, K. 2013. Reviewing evidence of marine ecosystem change off South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 35(3): 427-448.
National Seal Strategy Group and Stewardson, C. 2007. National Strategy to Address Interactions between Humans and Seals: Fisheries, Aquaculture and Tourism. Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra, Australia.
Nyakatura, K. and Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2012. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biology 10: 12.
Oosthuizen, W.H. 1991. General movements of South African (Cape) fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus from analysis of recoveries of tagged animals. South African Journal of Marine Science 11: 21-29.
Oosthuizen, W.H., Meyer, M.A., David, J.H.M., Summers, N.M., Kotze, P.G.H., Swanson, S.W. and Shaughnessy, P.D. 1997. Variation in jackal numbers at the Van ReenenBay seal colony with comment on the likely importance of jackals as predators. African Journal of Wildlife Research 27: 26-29.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Page, B., McKenzie, J. and Goldsworthy, S.D. 2005a. Dietary resource partitioning among sympatric New Zealand and Australian fur seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 293: 283-302.
Pemberton, D. and Kirkwood, R. J. 1994. Pup production and distribution of the Australian fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, in Tasmania. Wildlife Research 21: 341–352.
Pemberton, D. and Shaughnessy, P.D. 1993. Interaction between seals and marine fish-farms in Tasmania and management of the problem. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 3: 149-158.
Punt, A.E. and Butterworth, D.S. 1995. The effects of future consumption by the Cape fur seal on catches and catch rates of the Cape hakes. 4. Modelling the biological interaction between Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus and the Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus. South African Journal of Marine Science 16: 255-285.
Rand, R.W. 1955. Reproduction in the female Cape fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus (Schreber). Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London 124: 717-740.
Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van der Toorn, J., van der Wolf, P., Boyd, I., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. and Lowry, L. 1993. Seals, fur seals, sea lions, and walrus. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN Seal Specialist Group.
Repenning, C.A., Peterson, R.S. and Hubbs, C.L. 1971. Contributions to the systematics of the southern fur seals, with particular reference to the Juan Fernández and Guadalupe species. In: W.H. Burt (ed.), Antarctic Pinnipedia, pp. 1-34. Antarctic Research Series 18, American Geophysical Union, New York, USA.
Rice, F.H. and Saayman, G.S. 1987. Distribution and behaviour of killer whales (Orcinus orca) off the coasts of southern Africa. Investigations on Cetacea 20: 231-250.
Robinson, S., Terauds, A., Gales, R. and Greenwood, M. 2008a. Mitigating fur seal interactions: relocation from Tasmanian aquaculture farms. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(7): 1180-1188.
Roux, J.-P. 1998. The impact of environmental variability on the seal population. Namibia Brief 20: 138-140.
Roux, J.P., van der Lingen, C.D., Gibbons, M.J., Moroff, N.E., Shannon, L.J., Smith, A.D. and Cury, P.M. 2013. Jellyfication of marine ecosystems as a likely consequence of overfishing small pelagic fishes: lessons from the Benguela. Bulletin of Marine Science 89: 249-284.
Roy, C., Van Der Lingen, C.D., Coetzee, J.C. and Lutjeharms, J.R.E. 2007. Abrupt environmental shift associated with changes in the distribution of Cape anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus spawners in the southern Benguela. African Journal of Marine Science 29: 309-319.
Shaughnessy P.D. 1979. Cape (South African) Fur Seal. Mammals in the Seas, Vol. II: Pinniped species summaries and report on sirenians, pp. 37-40. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy.
Shaughnessy, P.D. 1980. Entanglement of Cape fur seals with man-made objects. Marine Pollution Bulletin 11: 332-336.
Shaughnessy, P.D. 1999. The action plan for Australian seals. Environment Australia., Canberra, Australia.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Goldsworthy, S.D. and Mackay, A.I. 2014. Status and trends in abundance of New Zealand fur seal populations in South Australia. SARDI Research Report Series No. 781. Adelaide, Australia.
Shaughnessy, P.D., McKenzie, J., Lancaster, M.L., Goldsworthy, S.D. and Dennis, T.E. 2010. Australian fur seals establish haulout sites and a breeding colony in South Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 58: 94-103.
Skinner, J.D., Van Aarde, R.J. and Goss, R.A. 1995. Space and resource use by brown hyenas Hyaena brunnea in the Namib Desert. Journal of Zoology, London 237: 123-131.
Stewardson, C.L. 2001. Biology and conservation of the Cape (South African) fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus (Pinnipedia: Otariidae) from the Eastern Cape Coast of South Africa. PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Stewardson, C. L. 2007. National Assessment of Interactions between Humans and Seals: Fisheries, Aquaculture and Tourism. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra, Australia.
Thibault, M. 1999. Sighting of a South African fur seal on a beach in south-western Gabon. American Journal of Ecology 37: 119–120.
Tilzey, R.D.J., Goldsworthy, S., Cawthorn, M., Calvert, N., Hamer, D., Russell, S., Shaughnessy, P.D., Wize, B. and Stewardson, C. 2006. Assessment of seal-fishery interactions in the winter blue grenadier fishery off west Tasmania and the development of fishing practices and Seal Exclusion Devices to mitigate seal bycatch by factory trawlers. Final Report to the FRDC. Project no. 2001/008.
Tuck, G.N., Knuckey, I. and Klaer, N.L. 2013. Informing the review of the Commonwealth Policy on Fisheries Bycatch through assessing trends in bycatch of key Commonwealth fisheries. Final Report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC), Project: 2012/046. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research.
Villiers, D. J., de and Roux, J.-P. 1992. Mortality of newborn pups of the South African fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus in Namibia. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 881-889.
Warneke, R.M. 1995. Australian fur-seal Arctocephalus pusillus (Schreber, 1775). In: R. Strahan (ed.), The Mammals of Australia. Second Edition., pp. 680-682. Reed Books, Chatswood, UK.
Warneke, R.M. and Shaughnessy, P.D. 1985. Arctocephalus pusillus, the South African and Australian fur seal: taxonomy, evolution, biogeography and life history. In: J.K. Ling and M.M. Bryden. (eds), Studies of Sea Mammals in South Latitudes, pp. 53-77. South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia.
Wickens, P. A., David, J. H. M., Shelton, P. A. and Field, J. G. 1991. Trends in harvest and pup numbers of the South African fur seal: Implications for management. South African Journal of Marine Science 11: 307-326.
Wickens, P. A., Japp, D. W., Shelton, P. A., Kriel, F., Goosen, P. C., Rose, B., Augustyn, C. J., Bross, C. A. R., Penney, A. J. and Krohn, R. G. 1992. Seals and fisheries in South Africa - competition and conflict. In: A.I.L. Payne, K.H. Brink, K.H. Mann, and R. Hilborn (eds.). Benguela Trophic Functioning. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 773-789.
Wickens, P. and York, A.E. 1997. Comparative population dynamics of fur seals. Marine Mammal Science 13(2): 241-292.
Wynen, L.P., Goldsworthy, S.D., Insley, S.J., Adams, M., Bickham, J.W., Francis, J., Gallo, J.P., Hoelzel, A.R., Majluf, P., White, R.W.G. and Slade, R. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships within the eared seals (Otariidae: Carnivora): Implications for the historical biogeography of the family. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 21(2): 270-284.
Yonezawa, T., Kohno, N. and Hasegawa, M. 2009. The monophyletic origin of sea lions and fur seals (Carnivora; Otariidae) in the Southern Hemisphere. Gene 441: 89-99.
|Citation:||Hofmeyr, G.J.G. 2015. Arctocephalus pusillus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T2060A45224212. . Downloaded on 12 February 2016.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|