|Scientific Name:||Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875)|
Arctocephalus tropicalis ssp. gazella Peters, 1875
Arctophoca gazella Peters, 1875
Antarctic Fur Seals were formerly considered a subspecies of Arctocephalus tropicalis and were known as A. t. gazella (Repenning et al. 1971). Rice (1998) listed the species as A. gazella. In 2011 the genus of this, and many other species of Fur Seals was changed to Arctophoca, Peters 1866 (Committee on Taxonomy 2011) based on evidence presented in Berta and Churchill (2012). However, in 2013, based on genetic evidence presented in Nyakatura and Bininda-Emonds (2012), this change was considered to be premature and these species were returned to the genus Arctocephalus pending further research (Committee on Taxonomy 2013).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Lowry, L., Ahonen, H., Pollock, C.M., Chiozza, F. & Battistoni, A.|
Antarctic Fur Seals are the most abundant species of Fur Seal and are classified as Least Concern. While some 95% of Antarctic Fur Seals haul out and breed at the island of South Georgia, they also use 11 other sites. The estimated number of adult females at South Georgia in 2012 was 550,000 and this number is believed to represent a decline of 24% since 1984. These values have, however, been questioned because of limitations in sampling. The second largest population, at Bouvetøya, experienced rapid growth to 2001 but a decline between then and 2007. Most other colonies support several hundred to several thousand animals. No subpopulations exist and movement between colonies takes place. Neither this species as a whole, nor any separate colonies, are likely to become extinct in the near future. The greatest threat to this species is considered to be the impact of climate change on its physical environment and populations of its prey. The impacts of other threats, including the impact of incipient fishing industries on prey populations and entanglement in anthropogenic debris, remain low. Due to a population bottleneck experienced by this species at the height of intensive exploitation, genetic diversity is low, which may render this species more vulnerable to climate change and disease.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Antarctic Fur Seals inhabit the Southern Ocean and are widely-distributed in waters south, and in some areas north, of the Antarctic Convergence (Bonner 1968). While most Antarctic Fur Seals breed at South Georgia (Boyd 1993), colonies are also found on the South Shetland Islands (Goebel et al. 2003), the South Orkney Islands (Boyd 1993), the South Sandwich Islands (Holdgate 1962), the Prince Edward Islands (Bester et al. 2003, Hofmeyr et al. 2006a), Îles Crozet (Guinet et al. 1994), Îles Kerguelen (Guinet et al. 2000), Heard Island (Page et al. 2003), McDonald Island (Johnstone 1982), Macquarie Island (Goldsworthy et al. 2009) and Bouvetøya (Hofmeyr et al. 2005). Vagrants have been recorded at Gough Island (Wilson et al. 2006), Tristan da Cunha (Bester et al. 2014) and on the coasts of Antarctica (Shaughnessy and Burton 1986), southern South America (Drehmer and De Oliviera 2000), and Australia (Shaughnessy et al. 2014). Antarctic Fur Seals disperse widely when at sea (Boyd et al. 1998, Staniland et al. 2012), however few data on distribution and movements at sea have been published.
Native:Antarctica; Bouvet Island; French Southern Territories (Crozet Is., Kerguelen); Heard Island and McDonald Islands; South Africa (Marion-Prince Edward Is.); South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (South Georgia, South Sandwich Is.)
Vagrant:Argentina; Australia (Macquarie Is. - Native); Brazil; Chile; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Tristan da Cunha)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – Antarctic; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – Antarctic; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – Antarctic
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Antarctic Fur Seals are believed to be the most abundant species of Fur Seal (Wickens and York 1997). The island of South Georgia supports approximately 95% of all Antarctic Fur Seals. The total population of this site in 1999/2000 was estimated to be between 4.5 and 6.2 million (I. Boyd pers. comm. in SCAR EGS 2008). However, the abundance of adult females is estimated to have declined by some 30% between 2003 and 2012, and by 24% since 1984 to around 550,000. It has been suggested that this decline is due to the effects of global climate change on prey availability (Forcada and Hoffman 2014). The methods used to derive these population values have, however, been questioned (Boyd 2014).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Antarctic Fur Seals are a sexually dimorphic species. Adult males are approximately 1.8 m long and weigh between 130 and 200 kg. Adult females are 1.2-1.4 m and 22-50 kg. Newborns weigh six to seven kilograms (Laws 1993). Age of first reproduction is three years for females (Lunn et al. 1994) and seven years for males (McCann and Doidge 1987). |
Antarctic Fur Seals are highly polygynous. The first adult males arrive at their colonies in late October, some two to three weeks before the first adult females. Males continue to arrive and challenge one another for territories throughout the season. Territories are acquired and held by use of vocalizations, threat postures, and fighting (Bonner 1968). Females begin to arrive in mid-November and most pupping and breeding occurs from late November to late December. Adult females give birth one to two days after arrival at the colony and subsequently attend their pup for six to seven days. They come into oestrous, mate and then depart shortly afterwards on their first foraging trip of the season (Payne 1977, Doidge et al. 1986). Foraging trip and attendance periods vary inter-annually depending on the availability of the lactating female’s prey, but generally last four to five days at sea followed by two to three days attendance on shore (Costa et al. 1989, Boyd 1999, Guinet et al. 2000, Kirkman et al. 2003). Antarctic Fur Seals undertake short shallow dives, primarily at night (Boyd and Croxall 1992, Costa et al. 2000, Robinson et al. 2002, Goldsworthy et al. 2010). Mean dive depth and duration increase during the lactation period (Costa et al. 1989, Boyd 1999, Guinet et al. 2000). The maximum diving depth recorded for lactating females is 181 m (Boyd and Croxall 1992).
Pups are weaned at about four months of age. After the pups are weaned, seals are thought to disperse widely and are seldom seen at the colonies before the next breeding season (Kerley 1983, Boyd et al. 1998, Warren et al. 2006). Breeding bulls also depart the rookery, but subadults and some adult males can be seen at rookeries at all times of the year (Bonner 1968, Payne 1977, Kerley 1983, Boyd et al. 1998).
The diet of Antarctic Fur Seals varies by season and locality. At South Georgia and other islands of the Scotia Arc, and at Bouvetøya, they feed primarily on Krill (Kirkman et al. 2000, Staniland and Pond 2005, Hofmeyr et al. 2010, Polito and Goebel 2010). At Heard Island, Macquarie Island, the Îles Crozet and the Prince Edward Islands, Krill is not as abundant and Antarctic Fur Seals prey primarily on cephalopods and fish such as myctophids and notothenids (Lea et al. 2002, Robinson et al. 2002, Casper et al. 2007, Cherel et al. 2007, Cherel et al. 2008, Makhado et al. 2008, Kernaléguen et al. 2012). Antarctic Fur Seals have also been known to eat Penguins at a number of sites (Bonner 1968, Green et al. 1989, Hofmeyr and Bester 1993).
Antarctic Fur Seals are sympatric with other species of Fur Seals at three sites. Hybridization with Subantarctic Fur Seals occurs at the Prince Edward Islands (Hofmeyr et al. 2006a) and the Îles Crozet (Kingston and Gwilliam 2007) and with both Subantarctic Fur Seals and New Zealand Fur Seals at Macquarie Island (Lancaster et al. 2006, Goldsworthy et al. 2010, Lancaster et al. 2010). Levels of hybridization are low at the Prince Edward Islands (Hofmeyr et al. 2006a) and at Îles Crozet (Kingston and Gwilliam 2007) and thus do not affect the integrity of this species. The population at Macquarie Island comprises 0.02% of the species total population (Goldsworthy et al. 2009).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Generation Length (years):||9.1|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Use and Trade:||
Antarctic Fur Seals were last harvested in the early 20th century. Some 170 were taken at South Georgia in 1907 (McCann and Doidge 1987), and 800 were taken at Bouvetøya in 1927 (Olstad 1929 cited in Fevolden and Sømme 1976). This species has not been exploited since then.
Commercial sealing drove Antarctic Fur Seals to the brink of extinction by the late 19th century. It is now believed that this species survived the period of over-exploitation in very small numbers at three sites: South Georgia, Bouvetøya and the Îles Kerguelen (Wynen et al. 2000, Hofmeyr et al. 2005), and possibly a fourth site at the South Shetland Islands (Bonin et al. 2013). While this species has lost considerable genetic diversity due to the historical population bottleneck (Wynen et al. 2000) and is potentially at risk from disease outbreaks and environmental change, unexpected levels of diversity are present (Bonin et al. 2013).
Waters inhabited by Antarctic Fur Seals are exploited by few fisheries, but these may expand in their range in the future (Hanchet et al. 2003). This species has been recorded entangled in marine debris such as discarded fishing line, nets, packing bands and other objects. The majority of this debris is believed to be generated by the fishing industry (Arnould and Croxall 1995, Hofmeyr et al. 2006b). The numbers of Antarctic Fur Seals entangled in anthropogenic debris has been estimated to be 0.4% of the total population at South Georgia (Arnould and Croxall 1995), 0.24% of the combined Antarctic/Subantarctic Fur Seal populations at the Prince Edward Islands (Hofmeyr et al. 2002), and 0.059 % at Bouvetøya (Hofmeyr et al. 2006b). Most entangled seals are expected to die as a result of their entanglement (Bonner and McCann 1982, Croxall et al. 1990).
Leopard Seals have been noted to take as many as a third of the Antarctic Fur Seal pups born at sites in the South Shetland Islands (Hiruki et al. 1989). Levels of predation may be high enough to cause a population decline at these sites (Boveng et al. 1998). New Zealand Sea Lions have been reported to kill up to half of the Antarctic Fur Seal pup production in a season at Macquarie Island (Robinson et al. 1999).
The risk of transfer of diseases such as morbillivirus from other pinnipeds or terrestrial animals to Antarctic Fur Seals is unknown. Antarctic Fur Seals are considered to be one of several pinnipeds at high risk of future disease outbreaks because of their tendency to congregate in large dense aggregations and the effect of environmental changes associated with global warming on the spread of diseases (Lavigne and Schmitz 1990).
Tourism takes place at several localities, but due to the isolation of haulout sites, visits by tourists are rare (Kirkwood et al. 2003, Hofmeyr and Bester 2008).
The effect of global climate change on Antarctic Fur Seals is unknown, but it has been suggested that warming may impact them indirectly by altering environmental conditions and causing changes in prey population distribution and abundance, resulting in population decline (Learmonth et al. 2006, Siniff et al. 2008, Kovacs et al. 2012, McDonald et al. 2012, Forcada and Hoffman 2014, McBride et al. 2014). The severe population bottleneck experienced by this species, and the resulting reduction in genetic variation (Wynen et al. 2000), may render this species more vulnerable to climate change (Kovacs et al. 2012, Forcada and Hoffman 2014).
|Conservation Actions:||Antarctic Fur Seals are protected by virtue of the isolation of their marine habitat and haulout sites. The Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals protects populations of this species of Fur Seal below 60ºS. North of the Antarctic Treaty area, Antarctic Fur Seals are protected by the nations that govern the islands on which they breed. The Falkland Islands Dependencies Conservation Ordinance provides protection for Antarctic Fur Seals on South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Reijnders et al. 1993). Seals on the Prince Edward Islands are protected by virtue of these islands status as a special nature reserve, their location within a marine protected area, and also by the South African Seabirds and Seals Protection Act (PEIMP 2010). Large reserves have also been established around Heard and McDonald islands (http://heardisland.antarctica.gov.au/protection-and-management/marine-reserve) and Macquarie Island (http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/marine/marine-reserves/south-east/macquarie-island) that serve to protect Seals.|
Arnould, J.P.Y. and Croxall, J.P. 1995. Trends in entanglement of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) in man-made debris at South Georgia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30: 707-712.
Berta, A. and Churchill, M. 2012. Pinniped taxonomy: review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description. Mammal Review 42: 207-234.
Bester, M. N., Ryan, P. G. and Dyer, B. M. 2003. Population numbers of fur seals at Prince Edward Island, Southern Ocean. African Journal of Marine Science 25: 549-554.
Bester, M.N., Ryan, P.G., Bester, W.A. and Glass, T. 2014. Vagrant Antarctic fur seals at the Tristan da Cunha Islands. Polar Biology 37: 1701-1703.
Bonin, C.A., Goebel, M.E., Forcada, J., Burton, R.S. and Hoffman, J.I. 2013. Unexpected genetic differentiation between recently recolonized populations of a long-lived and highly vagile marine mammal. Ecology and Evolution 3: 3701-3712.
Bonner, W. N. 1968. The fur seal of South Georgia. British Antarctic Survey Report 56: 1-95.
Bonner, W. N. and McCann, T. S. 1982. Neck collars on fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, at South Georgia. British Antarctic Survey Report 57: 73-77.
Boveng, P. L., Hiruki, L. M., Schwartz, M. K. and Bengston, J. L. 1998. Population growth of Antarctic fur seals: limitation by a top predator, the leopard seal? Ecology 79: 2863-2877.
Boyd, I.L. 1993. Pup production and distribution of breeding Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at South Georgia. Antarctic Science 5: 17-24.
Boyd, I.L. 1999. Foraging and provisioning in Antarctic fur seals: interannual variability in time-energy. Behavioural Ecology 10: 198-208.
Boyd, I.L. 2014. The climate change bogie – a comment on Forcada and Hoffman. Available at: https://ianlboyd.wordpress.com. (Accessed: 5 November 2014).
Boyd, I.L. and Croxall, J.P. 1992. Diving behaviour of lactating Antarctic fur seals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70: 919-928.
Boyd, I., McCafferty, D. J., Reid, K., Taylor, R. and Walker, T. R. 1998. Dispersal of male and female Antarctic fur seals. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 845-852.
Casper, R.M., Jarman, S.N., Gales, N.J., Hindell, M.A. 2007. Combining DNA and morphological analyses of faecal samples improves insight into trophic interactionc: a case study using a generalist predator. Marine Biology 152: 815-825.
Cherel, Y., Ducatez, S., Fontaine, C., Richard, P. and Guinet, C. 2008. Stable isotopes reveal the trophic position and mesopelagic fish diet of female southern elephant seals breeding on the Kergueln Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series 370: 239-247.
Cherel, Y., Hobson, K.A., Guinet, C. and Vanpé, C. 2007. Stable isotopes document seasonal changes in trophic niches and winter foraging individual specialization in diving predators from the Southern Ocean. Journal of Animal Ecology 76: 826-836.
Committee on Taxonomy. 2011. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Society for Marine Mammalogy. Available at: https://www.marinemammalscience.org/species-information/list-of-marine-mammal-species-subspecies/. (Accessed: 10 January 2012).
Committee on Taxonomy. 2013. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Updated 3 December 2013. Available at: http://www.marinemammalscience.org. (Accessed: 3 July 2014).
Costa, D. P., Croxall, J. P. and Duck, C. D. 1989. Foraging energetics of Antarctic fur seals in relation to changes in prey availability. Ecology 70: 296-606.
Costa, D. P., Goebel, M. E. and Sterling, J. T. 2000. Foraging energetics and diving behavior of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella at Cape Sherreff, Livingston Island. In: W. Davidson, C. Howard-Williams and P. Broady (eds), Antarctic Ecosystems: Models for Wider Ecological Understanding, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Doidge, D. W., McCann, T. S. and Croxall, J. P. 1986. Attendance behaviour of Antarctic fur seals. In: R. L. Gentry and G. L. Kooyman (eds), Fur Seals: Maternal Strategies on Land and at Sea, pp. 102-114. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
Drehmer, C. J. and de Oliveira, L. R. 2000. Syncranial osteology of Arctocephalus gazella (Pinnipedia, Otariidae) from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Iheringia. Serie Zoologia 88: 51–59.
Fevolden, S.E. and Sømme, L. 1976. Observations on birds and seals at Bouvetøya. Norsk Polarinstitutt Årbok 1976: 367-371.
Forcada, J. and Hoffman, J.I. 2014. Climate change selects for heterozygosity in a declining fur seal population. Nature 511: 462-465.
Goebel, M. E., Vallejos, V. I., Trivelpiece, W. Z., Holt, R. S. and Acevedo, J. 2003. Antarctic fur seal pup production in the South Shetland Islands. AMLR 2001/2002 Field Season Report. In: J. Lipsky (ed.). NOAA-Technical Memorandum NMFS- SWFSC-350.
Goldsworthy, S. D. 1999. Maternal attendance behaviour of sympatrically breeding Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus spp., at Macquarie Island. Polar Biology 21: 316-325.
Goldsworthy, S. D., McKenzie, J., Page, B., Lancaster, M. L., Shaughnessy, P. D., Wynen, L. P., Robinson, S. A., Peters, K. J., Baylis, A. M. M., and McIntosh, R. R. 2009. Fur seals at Macquarie Island: post-sealing colonisation, trends in abundance and hybridisation of three species. Polar Biology 32: 1473–1486.
Goldsworthy, S.D., Page, B., Welling, A., Chambellant, M. and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2010. Selection of diving strategy by Antarctic fur seals depends on where and when foraging takes place. Marine Ecology Progress Series 409: 255-266.
Green, K, Burton, H. R. and Williams, R. 1989. The diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella (Peters) during the breeding season at Heard Island. Antarctic Science 1(3): 17-324.
Guinet, C., Jouventin, P. and. Georges, J.-Y. 1994. Long term population changes of fur seals Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis on subantarctic (Crozet) and subtropical (St. Paul and Amsterdam) Islands and their possible relationship to El Nino Southern Oscillation. Antarctic Science 6(4): 473-478.
Guinet, C., Lea, M.-A. and Goldsworthy, S. D. 2000. Mass change in Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) pups in relation to maternal characteristics at the Kerguelen Islands. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 1-8.
Hanchet, S., Horn, P. and Stevenson, M. 2003. Fishing in the ice: is it sustainable? Water & Atmosphere 11: 24–25.
Hiruki, L. M., Schwartz, M. K. and Boveng, P. L. 1999. Hunting and social behaviour of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Seal Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Journal of Zoology (London) 249: 97-109.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G. and Bester M.N. 1993. Predation on king penguins by Antarctic fur seals. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 23(1- 2): 71-74.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G. and Bester M.N. 2008. Subantarctic Islands. In: M. Lück (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments, pp. 456-457. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Bester, M.N., Kirkman, S.P., Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K.M. 2006b. Entanglement of Antarctic fur seals at Bouvetøya, Southern Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52: 1077-1080.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Bester, M.N., Kirkman, S.P., Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K.M. 2010. Intraspecific differences in the diet of Antarctic fur seals at Nyrøysa, Bouvetøya. Polar Biology 33: 1171-1178.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Bester, M.N., Makhado, A.B. and Pistorius, P.A. 2006a. Population changes in Subantarctic and Antarctic fur seals at Marion Island. Polar Biology 17: 150-158.
Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Krafft, B.A., Kirkman, S.P., Bester, M.N., Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K.M. 2005. Population changes of Antarctic fur seals at Nyrøysa, Bouvetøya. Polar Biology 28: 725-731.
Holdgate, M. W. 1962. Fur seals in the South Sandwich Islands. Polar Record 11: 474-475.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Johnstone, G. W. 1982. Zoology. Expedition to the Australian Territory of Heard Island and the MacDonald Islands, 1980. Technical Report 31. Division of National Mapping, Canberra, Australia.
Kerley, G. I. H. 1983. Comparison of seasonal haulout patterns of fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis and A. gazella on Subantarctic Marion Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 13: 71-77.
Kernaléguen, L., Cazelles, B., Arnould, J.P.Y., Richard, P., Guinet, C., Cherel, Y. 2012. Long-term species, sexual and individual variations in foraging strategies of fur seals revealed by stable isotopes in whiskers. PLoS One 7: e32916.
Kingston, J.J. and Gwilliam, J. 2007. Hybridization between two sympatrically breeding species of fur seal at Iles Crozet revealed by genetic analysis. Conservation Genetics 8: 1133-1145.
Kirkman, S.P., Bester, M.N., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Pistorius, P.A. and Makhado, A.B. 2002. Pup growth and maternal attendance patterns in Subantarctic fur seals. African Zoology 37: 13-19.
Kirkman, S.P., Bester, M.N., Makhado, A.B. and Pistorius, P.A. 2003. Female attendance patterns of Antarctic fur seals at Marion Island. African Zoology 38: 402-405.
Kirkman, S.P., Wilson, W., Klages, N.T.W., Bester, M.N. and Isaksen, K. 2000. Diet and estimated food consumption of Antarctic fur seals at Bouvetøya during summer. Polar Biology 23: 745-752.
Kirkwood, R., Boren, L., Shaughnessy, P.D., Szteren, D., Mawson, P., Hückstädt, L., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Oosthuizen, H., Campagna, C. and Berris, M. 2003. Pinniped-focused tourism in the Southern Hemisphere: a review of the industry. In: N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood (eds), Marine mammals and humans: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, pp. 257-276. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.
Kovacs, K.M., Aguilar, A., Aurioles, D., Burkanov, V., Campagna, C., Gales, N.J., Gelatt, T., Goldsworthy, S.D., Goodman, S.J., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Härkönen, T., Lowry, L., Lydersen, L., Schipper, J., Sipilä, T., Southwell, C., Thompson, D. and Trillmich, F. 2012. Global threats to pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science 28: 414-436.
Lancaster, M.L., Gemmell, N.J., Negro, S., Goldsworthy, S. and Sunnucks, P. 2006. Ménage à trois on Macquarie Island: hybridization among three species of fur seal (Arctocephalus spp.) following historical population extinction. Molecular Ecology 15: 3681-3692.
Lancaster, M. L., Goldsworthy, S. D., and Sunnucks, P. 2010. Two behavioural traits promote fine-scale species segregation and moderate hybridisation in a recovering sympatric fur seal population. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010 10: 143.
Lavigne D.M. and Schmitz, O.J. 1990. Global warming and increasing population densities: a prescription for seal plagues. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21: 280-284.
Laws, R. M. 1993. Identification of species. In: R. M. Laws (ed.), Antarctic seals, pp. 1-28. Cambridge University Press.
Lea, M-.A., Cherel, Y., Guinet, C. and Nichols, P.D. 2002. Antarctic fur seals foraging in the Polar Frontal Zone: inter-annual shifts in diet as shown from fecal and fatty acid analyses. Marine Ecology Progress Series 245: 281-297.
Learmonth, J.A., Macleod, C.D., Santos, M.B., Pierce, G.J., Crick, H.Q.P. and Robinson, R.A. 2006. Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 44: 431-464.
Lunn, N. J., Boyd, I. L. and Croxall, J. P. 1994. Reproductive performance of female Antarctic fur seals: the influence of age, breeding experience, environmental variation and individual quality. Journal of Animal Ecology 63: 827-840.
Makhado, A.B., Bester, M.N., Kirkman, S.P., Pistorius, P.A., Ferguson, J.W.H. and Klages, N.T.W. 2008. Prey of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella at Marion Island. Polar Biology 31: 575-581.
McBride, M.M., Dalpadado, P., Drinkwater, K.F., Godø, O.R., Hobday, A.J., Hollowed, A.B., Kristiansen, T., Murphy, E.J., Ressler, P.H., Subbey, S., Hofmann, E.E. and Loeng, H. 2014. Krill, climate, and contrasting future scenarios for Arctic and Antarctic fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71: 1934-1955.
McCann, T. S. and Doidge, D. W. 1987. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella. In: J. P. Croxall and R. L. Gentry (eds), Status, Biology, and Ecology of Fur Seals, pp. 5-8. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 51.
McDonald, B.I., Goebel, M.E., Crocker, D.E. and Costa, D.P. 2012. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85: 134-147.
Nyakatura, K. and Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2012. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biology 10: 12.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Page, B., Welling, A., Chambellant, M., Goldsworthy, S. D., Dorr, T. and Van Veen, R. 2003. Population status and breeding season chronology of Heard Island fur seals. Polar Biology 26: 219-224.
Payne, M. R. 1977. Growth of a fur seal population. 279: 67-79.
Payne, M. R. 1979. Growth in the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella. Journal of Zoology (London) 187: 67-79.
PEIMC. 1996. Prince Edward Islands Management Plan. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, South Africa.
Polito, M.J. and Goebel, M.E. 2010. Investigating the use of stable isotope analysis of milk to infer seasonal trends in the diets and foraging habitats of female Antarctic fur seals. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 395: 1-9.
Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van der Toorn, J., van der Wolf, P., Boyd, I., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. and Lowry, L. 1993. Seals, fur seals, sea lions, and walrus. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN Seal Specialist Group.
Repenning, C.A., Peterson, R.S. and Hubbs, C.L. 1971. Contributions to the systematics of the southern fur seals, with particular reference to the Juan Fernández and Guadalupe species. In: W.H. Burt (ed.), Antarctic Pinnipedia, pp. 1-34. Antarctic Research Series 18, American Geophysical Union, New York, USA.
Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.
Robinson, S. A., Goldsworthy, S. G., Van den Hoff, J. and Hindell, M. A. 2002. The foraging ecology of two sympatric fur seal species, Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis, at Macquarie Island during the austral summer. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 1071-1082.
Robinson. S., Wynen L. and Goldsworthy S. 1999. Predation by a Hooker’s sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) on a small population of fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.) at Macquarie Island. Marine Mammal Science 15: 888-893.
SCAR-EGS. 2008. Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research – Expert Group on Seals Report. Available at: http://www.seals.scar.org/pdf/statusofstocs.pdf. (Accessed: 5 November 2014).
Shaughnessy, P. D. and Burton, H. R. 1986. Fur seals Arctocephalus spp. At Mawson Station, Antarctica, and in the Southern Ocean. Polar Records 23: 79-81.
Shaughnessy, P.D. and Goldsworthy, S.D. 1990. Population size and breeding season of the Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella at Heard Island. Marine Mammal Science 6: 292-304.
Shaughnessy P.D., Kemper, C.M., Stemmer, D. and McKenzie, J. 2014. Records of vagrant fur seals (family Otariidae) in South Australia. Australian Mammalogy 36: 154-168.
Siniff, D.B., Garrott, R.A., Rotella, J.J., Fraser, W.R. and Ainley, D.G. 2008. Opinion: Projecting the effects of environmental change on Antarctic seals. Antarctic Science 20: 425-435.
Staniland, I.J. and Pond, D.W. 2005. Investigating the use of milk fatty acids to detect dietary changes: a comparison with faecal analysis in Antarctic fur seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 294: 283-294.
Staniland, I.J., Robinson, S.L., Silk, J.R.D., Warren, N. and Trathan, P.N. 2012. Winter distribution and haul-out behaviour of female Antarctic fur seals from South Georgia. Marine Biology 159: 291-301.
Stewardson, C. L. 2007. National Assessment of Interactions between Humans and Seals: Fisheries, Aquaculture and Tourism. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra, Australia.
Warren, N.L., Trathan, P.N., Forcada, J., Fleming, A. and Jessopp, M.J. 2006. Distribution of post-weaning Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella pups at South Georgia. Polar Biology 29: 179-188.
Wege, M., Oosthuizen, W.C., de Bruyn, P.J.N., Reisinger, R.R. and Bester, M.N. in prep. Population changes of sympatric Subantarctic and Antarctic fur seals at subantarctic Marion Isl.
Wege, M., Postma, M., Tosh, C.A., de Bruyn, P.J.N. and Bester, M.N. 2014. First confirmed record of a leucistic Antarctic fur seal pup born outside the Scotia Arc Islands. Polar Biology DOI 10.1007/s00300-014-1573-Z.
Wickens, P. and York, A.E. 1997. Comparative population dynamics of fur seals. Marine Mammal Science 13(2): 241-292.
Wilson, J. W., Burle, M.-H. and Bester, M. N. 2006. Vagrant Antarctic pinnipeds at Gough Island. Polar Biology 29: 905–908.
Wynen, L. P., Goldsworthy, S. D., Guinet, C., Bester, M. N., Boyd, I. L., Gjertz, I., Hofmeyr, G. J. G., White, R. W. G. and Slade, R. W. 2000. Post sealing genetic variation and population structure of two species of fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis). Molecular Ecology 9: 299-314.
|Citation:||Hofmeyr, G.J.G. 2016. Arctocephalus gazella. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T2058A66993062.Downloaded on 25 September 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|