|Scientific Name:||Spermophilus townsendii|
|Species Authority:||Bachman, 1839|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Spermophilus canus and S. mollis formerly were included in S. townsendii. Baker et al. (2003) and Thorington and Hoffmann (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) recognized the three taxa as distinct species, noting their distinct cytotypes and lack of hybridization.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Yensen, E. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer/s:||Amori, G., Koprowski, J. & Roth, L. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority)|
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is estimated to be only about 6,700 km², less than 10% of its original habitat remains and continues to decline in extent and quality, and populations are highly fragmented, and it is considered a pest and subject to control in some areas.
|Range Description:||This species is restricted to the Yakima River Valley of Washington in the United States, west of the Yakima River and in the Horse Heaven Hills to the south of the valley (Hafner et al 1998). The entire area of the species' range appears to be less than 7,000 km².|
Native:United States (Washington)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Remaining populations of this species are fragmented and isolated. There are no estimates of population density available.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found mainly in high desert shrubland. It generally occurs in well-drained soils, especially embankments. It makes extensive burrow systems. Young are born in a nest chamber in an underground burrow. In Idaho, juvenile dispersal distance over two years was 146-1,076 metres (mean 515 metres over the two years) (Olson and Van Horne 1998).
Main diet includes herbaceous vegetation (grasses, forbs, and exotic annuals), and seeds; it may also eat some shrub parts and animal matter. Will often feed on crops. May climb bushes while foraging. Emerges from dormancy in late winter or early spring (males before females) but returns to dormancy during May-July, when grasses dry out. May have separate period of activity in fall. It is most active in the early morning.
|Major Threat(s):||Less than 10% of the species' original habitat remains and most of its range is on private land. This species causes agricultural damage in some areas and has been subject to control programs.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not known to occur in protected areas. To protect this species it is necessary to prevent overgrazing and limit the expansion of agriculture.|
Baker, R. J., Bradley, L. C., Bradley, R. D., Dragoo, J. W., Engstrom, M. D., Hoffman, R. S., Jones, C. A., Reid, F., Rice, D. W. and Jones, C. 2003. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University 229: 23 pp.
Hafner, D. J., Yensen, E. and Kirkland Jr., G. L. 1998. Status survey and conservation action plan - North American Rodents. IUCN/SSC Rodent Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Olson, G. S. and Van Horne, B. 1998. Dispersal patterns of juvenile Townsend's ground squirrels in southwestern Idaho. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 2084-2089.
Rickart, E. A. 268. Spermophilus townsendi. Mammalian Species 268: 1-6.
Thorington Jr., R. W. and Hoffmann, R. S. 2005. Family Sciuridae. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reader (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 754-818. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Wilson, D. E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Yensen, E. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Spermophilus townsendii. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 December 2013.|
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