|Scientific Name:||Urocitellus townsendii|
|Species Authority:||Bachman, 1839|
Spermophilus townsendii Bachman, 1839
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Helgen, K.M., Cole, F.R.,Helgen, L.E. and Wilson, D.E. 2009. Generic revision in the Holarctic ground squirrel genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy 90(2): 270-305.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Spermophilus canus and S. mollis formerly were included in S. townsendii. Baker et al. (2003) and Thorington and Hoffmann (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) recognized the three taxa as distinct species, noting their distinct cytotypes and lack of hybridization. This species is now recognized under a new genus, Urocitellus (Helgen et al. 2009).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, less than 10% of its original habitat remains and continues to decline in extent and quality, and populations are highly fragmented, and it is considered a pest and subject to control in some areas.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is restricted to the Yakima River Valley of Washington in the United States, west of the Yakima River and in the Horse Heaven Hills to the south of the valley (Hafner et al. 1998).|
Native:United States (Washington)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Remaining populations of this species are fragmented and isolated. There are no estimates of population density available.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found mainly in high desert shrubland. It generally occurs in well-drained soils, especially embankments. It makes extensive burrow systems. Young are born in a nest chamber in an underground burrow. In Idaho, juvenile dispersal distance over two years was 146-1,076 m (mean 515 metres over the two years) (Olson and Van Horne 1998). |
The main diet of this species includes herbaceous vegetation (grasses, forbs, and exotic annuals), and seeds; it may also eat some shrub parts and animal matter. This species will often feed on crops. May climb bushes while foraging. It emerges from dormancy in late winter or early spring (males before females) but returns to dormancy during May-July, when grasses dry out. May have separate period of activity in fall. It is most active in the early morning.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Major Threat(s):||Less than 10% of the species' original habitat remains and most of its range is on private land. This species causes agricultural damage in some areas and has been subject to control programs.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not known to occur in protected areas. To protect this species it is necessary to prevent overgrazing and limit the expansion of agriculture.|
Baker, R.J., Bradley, L.C., Bradley, R.D., Dragoo, J.W., Engstrom, M.D., Hoffman, R.S., Jones, C.A., Reid, F., Rice, D.W. and Jones, C. 2003. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University 229: 23 pp.
Hafner, D.J., Yensen, E. and Kirkland, G.L., Jr. 1998. Status survey and conservation action plan - North American Rodents. IUCN/SSC Rodent Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Helgen, K.M., Cole, F.R.,Helgen, L.E. and Wilson, D.E. 2009. Generic revision in the Holarctic ground squirrel genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy 90(2): 270-305.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Olson, G. S. and Van Horne, B. 1998. Dispersal patterns of juvenile Townsend's ground squirrels in southwestern Idaho. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 2084-2089.
Rickart, E. A. 268. Spermophilus townsendi. Mammalian Species 268: 1-6.
Thorington Jr., R.W. and Hoffmann, R.S. 2005. Family Sciuridae. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reader (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 754-818. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Wilson, D.E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Yensen, E. 2016. Urocitellus townsendii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T20476A22266682.Downloaded on 27 March 2017.|
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