Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Zingiberales Zingiberaceae

Scientific Name: Curcuma rhabdota
Species Authority: Sirirugsa & M.F.Newman
Common Name(s):
English Candy Cane, Candy Cane Ginger
Taxonomic Notes: This is an easily recognizable taxon without much confusion. But it may hybridize in the wild with other species from Curcuma subgenus Hitcheniopsis when growing sympatrically.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-11-01
Assessor(s): Leong-Skornickova, J., Tran, H.D., Newman, M., Lamxay, V. & Bouamanivong, S.
Reviewer(s): Hilton-Taylor, C. & Bilz, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hilton-Taylor, C.
The area of occupancy for this species is certainly less than 500 km², but it is known from more than five locations (but fewer than ten) and there is continuing decline in the population due to habitat degradation and over-exploitation by flower collectors. From the amounts seen for sale on the markets, it appears that this species is heavily exploited at present, but it is difficult to determine the population reduction. The species is therefore listed as Vulnerable under criterion B2, but further surveys and monitoring is required as this species could well warrant a higher listing.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: So far known from eastern Thailand (close to the Lao border), Cambodia and southern Lao PDR. The extent of occurrence is estimated at 44,557 km² and the area of occupancy is certainly less than 500 km². It is known from more than five locations but fewer than ten.
Countries occurrence:
Cambodia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Thailand
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 499
Number of Locations: 6-9
Upper elevation limit (metres): 500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Locally common but in decline due to over-collection.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Grows in deciduous and semi-deciduous forest, near streams (Maknoi 2006).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Sold at markets as an ornamental and exported to various international markets.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat degradation through agricultural expansion and over-collection of rhizomes from the wild populations are the two main threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In Lao PDR it is known to occur in Phou Xiang Thong National Protected Area.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.3. Harvest & Trade Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.3. Trade trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Maknoi, C. 2006. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Genus Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae) with particular reference to its occurrence in Thailand. PhD Thesis, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.

Citation: Leong-Skornickova, J., Tran, H.D., Newman, M., Lamxay, V. & Bouamanivong, S. 2012. Curcuma rhabdota. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T201886A2724628. . Downloaded on 05 October 2015.
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