|Scientific Name:||Ephedra compacta|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bell, A. & Bachman, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hilton-Taylor, C. & Lutz, M.L.|
Even without the reported outlying population in Baja California, the range of this species is much larger than the threshold for a threatened category. Overgrazing may be an issue in some parts of the range, but it is not thought to be causing a continuing decline. Hence this species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Endemic to Mexico. Mostly distributed in the central regions, but also more recently reported from a single record in Baja California (Reina 2002-226). Occurs from 250 m to 2,800 m.|
Native:Mexico (Aguascalientes, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, México Distrito Federal, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, Zacatecas)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Population size is not known but has been reported as scattered and abundant.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A shrub found in mattoral, scrub, grassy plains, rocky slopes often on calcareous substrate or gravelly soil. Associated with Juniper, Nolina, Larrea tridentata, Flourencia cernue, Yucca decipiens, Berberis trifoliolata, Prosopis juliflora, Lycium sp. Lesquerella fendlerI, Verbena sp., Cylindropuntia imbricta, C. leptocaulis, Opuntia neochrysacantha, O. rastrera, Agave lechuguilla and Koeberlinia.|
|Use and Trade:||The stems of most members of this genus contain the alkaloid ephedrine and are valuable in the treatment of asthma and many other complaints of the respiratory system (Plants for a Future 2010). Tannins are extracted from stems. The stems used to treat kidney disorders in humans.|
|Major Threat(s):||The stems of this plant are grazed by goats.|
|Conservation Actions:||The majority of known collections are not from within protected areas, but some populations do occur in reserves such as the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Biosphere Reserve. There are no reported ex situ seed bank or botanical gardens collections.|
Cutler, H. 1939. Monograph of the North American species of the genus Ephedra. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 269(4): 373-428.
Huang, J., Giannasi, D.E. and Price, R.A. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships in Ephedra (Ephedraceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 48-59.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Missouri Botanical Garden. 2009. Tropicos.org. St. Louis Available at: http://www.tropicos.org.
Plants for a Future. 1996-2010. Plants For A Future, Earth, Plants, People. Available at: http://www.pfaf.org/user/plantsearch.aspx.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2009. Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL). Available at: www.kew.org/ceb/sepasal. (Accessed: 03/02/2009).
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2009. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Available at: http://www.kew.org/wcsp/.
The New York Botanical Garden. 2007. The New York Botanical Garden: The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. Available at: http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/VirtualHerbarium.asp.
|Citation:||Bell, A. & Bachman, S. 2011. Ephedra compacta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 December 2014.|
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