|Scientific Name:||Ephedra breana|
Ephedra americana Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. subspecies humboldtii Stapf
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bell, A. & Bachman, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hilton-Taylor, C. & Lutz, M.L.|
Does not meet any of the threatened criteria. Range is relatively large and recent collections have been made indicating the species is still extant. Despite general threats in the region this species is not thought to be specifically threatened, hence is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Distributed from northwest Argentina through to Chile and Bolivia. Also reported from southeastern Peru, although no recent specimen records were found. Recorded from 500 m up to 4,300 m.|
Native:Argentina (Mendoza); Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama); Peru
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||500|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||4300|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Reported as locally common, although the exact population size is not known.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Often found in areas of low vegetation with small shrubs such as Puna grassland with cushion shrubs and Cereus. Able to tolerate arid areas with full exposure. Also found on rocky outcrops in dry areas. Prefers calcium-rich soil. Flowers from October to November and fruits from January to February.|
|Use and Trade:||The stems of most members of this genus contain the alkaloid ephedrine and are valuable in the treatment of asthma and many other complaints of the respiratory system (Plants for a Future 2010). This species is also known to be grazed by animals and may have some ornamental value.|
|Major Threat(s):||Although this plant is known to be grazed by animals there is no indication as to whether this is sustainable or not.|
|Conservation Actions:||Not reported to occur in any protected areas and no reported seed bank collection, although it does grow in two botanic gardens. Seed (strobili) collection is a recommended ex situ conservation action as well as further research to understand threats and population size and status.|
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Plants for a Future. 1996-2010. Plants For A Future, Earth, Plants, People. Available at: http://www.pfaf.org/user/plantsearch.aspx.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2009. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Available at: http://www.kew.org/wcsp/.
Squeo, F.A., Veit, H., Arancio, G., Gutierrez, J.R., Arroy, M.T.K. and Oliver N. 1993. Spatial heterogeneity of high mountain vegetation in the Andean desert zone of Chile. Mountain Research and Development 13(2): 203-209.
|Citation:||Bell, A. & Bachman, S. 2011. Ephedra breana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T201671A9161123. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T201671A9161123.en . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.|
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