|Scientific Name:||Salanoia concolor|
|Species Authority:||(I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1837)|
Galidia concolor I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1837
Salanoia unicolor (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1837)
Salanoia durrelli Durbin, Funk, Hawkins, Hills, Jenkins, Moncrieff & Ralainasolo, 2010
Salanoia olivacea (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1839)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Durbin et al. (2010) named Salanoia durrelli based on one specimen, although other individuals were observed but not taken. The morphological differences are minor and the name is here considered a synonym pending examination of further material. The population to which it refers is ecologically anomalous, occurring in marshland not the forest used by all other populations, and is highly threatened; clarifying its taxonomic status is therefore of urgent conservation importance.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A3cde+4cde ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Golden, C., Farris, Z.J., Jenkins, R.K.B. & Jones, J.P.G.|
Brown-tailed Vontsira is listed as Vulnerable because it is a rare species limited to highly threatened lowland forest and marshland habitats: it is likely that over the course of the next 10 years (taken as slightly over three generations), the population will drop by more than 30% (and possibly much more) mainly because of widespread habitat loss and degradation, hunting, persecution, and the effects of introduced carnivores. The breakdown of governance since the coup d'etat in 2009 has led to increased artisanal mining in forest areas, increased hunting, and increased opportunistic rosewood cutting throughout the species's range, especially in its core lowland forest habitat. This is so even in the protected areas such as Masoala National Park, one of the few sites where the species has been recorded recently. The extreme rarity of records of this species in its forest habitat is hard to explain and certainly does not reflect simply low levels of relevant survey effort. It is therefore possible that it is declining at rates sufficient for Endangered but this is masked by the poor quality of the information. This species is a priority for Red List review as soon as further information be generated.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The little-known Brown-tailed Vontsira is endemic to the rainforest of north-eastern Madagascar. There are recent (1995-2014) records only from Masoala National Park, Makira Natural Park, Betampona Strict Nature Reserve, Mananara Nord, and Zahamena Strict Reserve (Hawkins 2012a) and from Lake Alaotra. The latter site's population has been proposed as a new species, Durrell’s Vontsira Salanoia durrelli Durbin et al., 2010; its entire range is smaller than 100 km². The known records in rainforest range in elevation from 200 to 680 m. Despite substantial trapping efforts since the 1990s in eastern rainforest above 680 m, the species has not been recorded in any such sites (S.M. Goodman pers. comm. 2006), but Lake Alaotra lies at 750 m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Brown-tailed Vontsira is rarely seen, even in the sites with most records, Masoala (Hawkins 2012a) and Betampona (Britt and Virkaitis 2003).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Brown-tailed Vontsira is a diurnal species recorded only from lowland tropical humid forest (Hawkins 2012a) except for one marsh (Durbin et al 2010). In Makira, Brown-tailed Vontsira was camera-trapped in both degraded and non-degraded forest sites. It was recorded at a maximum elevation of 680 m and it did not occur at sites having high activity of feral/domestic dogs, feral/domestic cats or Ring-tailed Vontsira Galidia elegans (Farris and Kelly 2011, Farris et al. 2012, Farris et al. in review a). |
Brown-tailed Vontsira was camera-trapped primarily as duos; singles were very rare. It is almost exclusively diurnal with peak activity in early morning, whereas Ring-tailed Vontsira activity peaks at mid-day (Farris et al. in review b).
The animals rest in burrows or hollow trees during the night. The gestation period is about three months and there is a single young (Albignac 1973).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||3.2|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||For information on use and trade, see under Threats.|
Brown-tailed Vontsira is threatened by hunting, introduced carnivores, deforestation through conversion to cultivated land, and forest degradation through selective logging and charcoal production; the lake population faces additional threats.
Lowland forest below 500 m is one of the most threatened habitats in Madagascar. Deforestation and forest disturbance has increased significantly since 2009. R. Rajaonson (pers. comm. 2014) estimated that deforestation in eastern forest increased from 0.5% per annum in 2005-2010 to 0.94% per annum in 2010-2013. Allnut et al. (2009) estimated that in Masoala National Park, annual rates of deforestation in the studied area increased to 1.27% per annum in 2011. High levels of illegal settlement in protected areas, especially around the Bay of Antongil, are linked to artisanal mining (for quartz) and logging of rosewood; hunting for food using dogs has increased greatly in these areas as a result. Some villages have seen increases in populations of between 200 and 300% (C. Golden pers. comm. 2014).
In the Makira region there are no data on consumption rates of this carnivore, which is likely to reflect its overall rarity (Farris et al. in review a). In Betampona Strict Nature Reserve, Golden et al. (in press) reported six Brown-tailed Vontsiras hunted in one year, potentially a large proportion of the population of this very small site (2,228 ha).
Household interviews conducted by Madagasikara Voakajy (pers. comm. 2014) in the Moramanga region of eastern Madagascar in 2008-2009 did not identify Brown-tailed Vontsira as a hunted animal, which again might simply reflect its overall rarity.
Brown-tailed Vontsira had very strong temporal activity overlap with dogs and moderate overlap with feral/wild cats, revealing the potential for increased interactions and competition. These potential interactions and competition perhaps contribute to the absence of Brown-tailed Vontsira at sites where dog activity is high (Farris et al. in review b).
The Lac Alaotra subpopulation is very small and is confined to a very small area. It is threatened by killing as a pest, hunting, and the burning of its reed-bed habitat.
|Conservation Actions:||Brown-tailed Vontsira was recorded during 1995-2014 in several protected areas: Masoala National Park, Zahamena National Park, Makira Natural Park, and Betampona Strict Nature Reserve (Hawkins 2012a). Additional survey is needed to determine the current status of the populations of this species across its range, its basic natural history, and the types and magnitudes of the threats it faces. Given the small size of the Lac Alaotra population and the high level of threats it faces, clarification of its taxonomic status is urgent; although even if conspecific it warrants conservation attention as an ecologically anomalous population of a threatened species, if it is specifically distinct it is one of the most threatened carnivores in the world.|
Allnut, T.F., Asner, G.P., Golden, C.D. and Powell, G.V.N. 2013. Mapping recent deforestation and disturbance in northeastern Madagascar. Tropical Conservation Science 6: 1-15.
Britt, A. 1999. Observations on two sympatric, diurnal herpestids in the Betampona NR, eastern Madagascar. Small Carnivore Conservation 20: 14.
Britt, A. and Virkaitis, V. 2003. Brown-tailed Mongoose Salanoia concolor in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar: photographs and an ecological comparison with Ring-tailed Mongoose Galidia elegans. Small Carnivore Conservation 28: 1-3.
Durbin, J., Funk, S.M., Hawkins, F., Hills, D.M., Jenkins, P.D., Moncrieff, C.B. and Ralainasolo, F.B. 2010. Investigations into the status of a new taxon of Salanoia (Mammalia: Carnivora: Eupleridae) from the marshes of Lac Alaotra, Madagascar. Systematics and Biodiversity 8(3): 341–355.
Farris Z.J. and Kelly, M.J. 2011. A preliminary assessment of carnivores across the Makira Protected Area, Madagascar: results from a WCS pilot camera study. Wildlife Conservation Society, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Farris, Z.J., Gerber, B., Kelly, M.J., Karpanty, S., Murphy, F. and Andrianjakarivelo, V. In review b. When the carnivores roam: temporal patterns and partitioning among Madagascar’s native and exotic carnivores.
Farris, Z.J., Golden, C., Karpanty, S., Murphy, A., Stauffer, D., Andrianjakarivelo, V., Ratelolahy, F., Holmes, C. and Kelly, M.J. In review a. Effects of poaching, micro-habitat and landscape variables, human encroachment, and exotic species on Madagascar’s endemic and exotic carnivore community across the Masoala-Makira landscape.
Farris Z.J., Kelly M., Karpanty S.M., Ratelolahy F., Andrianjakarivelo V. and Holmes C. 2012. Brown-tailed Vontsira Salanoia concolor (Eupleridae) documented in Makira Natural Park, Madagascar: new insights on distribution and camera-trap success. Small Carnivore Conservation 47: 82–86.
Garbutt, N. 1999. Mammals of Madagascar. Pica Press, East Sussex, UK.
Golden, C.D., Rabehatonina, J.C.G., Rakotoarisoa, A. and Moore, M. 2014. Socio-ecological analysis of natural resource use near Betampona Strict Natural Reserve. Madagascar Conservation and Development. (in press).
Hawkins, F. 2012. Recent records of Brown-tailed Vontsira Salanoia concolor (Eupleridae) in Masoala National Park, Madagascar. Small Carnivore Conservation 47: 11-13.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Schreiber, A., Wirth, R., Riffel, M. and Van Rompaey, H. 1989. Weasels, civets, mongooses, and their relatives. An Action Plan for the conservation of mustelids and viverrids. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
|Citation:||Hawkins, F. 2016. Salanoia concolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T19852A45202205.Downloaded on 27 September 2016.|
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