|Scientific Name:||Kryptolebias marmoratus|
|Species Authority:||(Poey, 1880)|
Rivulus marmoratus Poey, 1880
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Least Concern because its extent of occurrence, number of subpopulations, and population size are large, and because the species probably is not declining fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is widely distributed throughout the West Indies region, from the Bahamas, including Bimini and the Andro Island (Harrington and Rivas 1958), south to northern and eastern South America to Venezuela (Taphorn 1980), including both the Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles (Seegers 1984, Huehner et al. 1985). It also occurs along the southern half of peninsular Florida and in portions of the Florida Keys (Fowler 1928, Gilbert and Burgess 1980, Huehner et al. 1985, Taylor and Snelson 1992).|
This fish was first reported in the United States from Key West (Fowler 1928, Hastings 1969). It has since been collected from several locations on both coasts of Florida on the east coast as far north as the Indian River Lagoon (Harrington and Rivas 1958, Taylor 1988. Davis et al. 1995) and near Ft. Myers (Tampa Bay) and on the west coast in mangrove and mosquito ditch habitats (Hastings 1969, Brockmann 1975, Robins et al. 1986, Taylor and Snelson 1992, Turner et al. 1992, Harrington and Rivas 1958). It is known from all east coast counties in Florida north to Brevard County, with the exception of Palm Beach County (Taylor 1993). The distribution closely parallels that of the red mangrove (Cardosoma guanhumi) with which this fish is closely associated (Davis et al. 1995).
Native:Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Brazil; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations) and locations (as defined by IUCN). Much of the range has not been surveyed. Field accounts are rare due to the small size and difficulty of sampling in the mangrove habitat (Taylor 1988). However, it is thought to occur at many sites throughout the rather large range (Taylor and Snelson 1992).|
In 1958, there were 37 populations considered extant in the United States, all in Florida (Harrington and Rivas 1958).
Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. There are no data to indicate exactly how many individuals currently exist or have been eliminated (Taylor 1989b).
The species apparently is widely distributed and locally rare and is more common in Florida than had been previously thought. The species is apparently abundant throughout the Florida Keys, although it has been overlooked in the past due to inadequate ichthyological collecting methods (Davis et al. 1990). As many as 26 individuals have been collected from a single burrow of the great land crab (Cardosoma guanhumi) along the Indian River Lagoon (Taylor 1989a, 1990). However, most collections (based on 111 specimens collected) typically consisted of one or two individuals per burrow (Taylor 1992). Collections of greater than 140 specimens have been taken at night by several collectors at a mangrove site in Collier County, Florida (Taylor 1988). Additional specimens have been found in this habitat in south Florida and the Florida Keys (Davis et al. 1990). Fifty-one individuals were found under partially submerged logs and less frequently in leaf litter in intertidal areas of Big Mangrove Key (east of Big Pine Key), Florida; two individuals were found in identical habitats on Grand Cayman, British West Indies (Huehner et al. 1985).
Fifteen individuals were collected from a population in the Maracaibo River Basin in Venezuela (Taphorn 1980).
Populations usually consist of all female individuals. However, collections on several cays off the coast of Belize yielded 13.5–24 percent males of the 305 specimens sampled (Turner et al. 1992).
May be declining due to habitat destruction or degradation. Probably has been eliminated from areas along the lower east coast of Florida.
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Primarily coastal brackish and saltwater areas usually with low oxygen content and hard-bottom areas with silt cover (Voss et al. 1969, Loftus and Kushlan 1987, Davis et al. 1995); usually collected from mangrove or high salt marsh habitats in a salinity of 20-35 parts per thousand (Davis et al. 1990, Taylor and Snelson 1992, Taylor 1993). Also reported from freshwater where it is considered rare (Tabb and Manning 1961, Loftus and Kushlan 1987). In very shallow, stagnant water over marly muck, often associated with detritus and scant vegetation. On the east coast of Florida, often found living in burrows of the land crab Cardiosoma guanhumi, especially in beds of saltwort and glasswort; also inhabits the burrows of other crabs such as Ucides cordatus in Belize (Taylor 1989b, Davis et al. 1990). See Taylor and Snelson (1992). |
Individuals are capable of leaving the water by burrowing through leaf litter (Huehner et al. 1985) and have also been observed out of the water attached to the underside of mangrove leaves. An extensive network of capillaries in the skin and fins allow absorption of oxygen when out of the water (Taylor 1989). This behaviour is probably a generalized response to environmental stress, including high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide, as well as a means of exploiting terrestrial resources (Abel et al. 1987). Eggs are able to survive for considerable periods of time out of the water in the mangrove forest substrate (Ritchie and Davis 1986). Adults are also capable of burrowing into moist mud when crab burrows dry up. They can stay buried in the mud for at least 60 days until the burrows become flooded once again by higher tides (Taylor 1989b).
Rivulus marmoratus is promising as a good estuarine bio-indicator species (to determine responses to toxins), due to its naturally inbred genetic attributes, fast growth rate, and simple husbandry (Lin and Dunson 1993, Park et al. 1994).
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||Has been used in carcinogenesis testing (Metcalfe 1989).|
Habitat destruction is a significant threat. Development of coastal habitats leads to loss of mangroves and general degradation of the estuarine environment; offshore pollution events may also degrade habitat, though this species can withstand considerable water pollution. Habitat remains vulnerable to human activities, especially the impounding of high marsh habitats for mosquito control (Taylor and Snelson 1992, Davis et al 1995, Taylor et al. 1995).
The species appears to already have disappeared from impounded marsh areas in the Indian River Lagoon area in central Florida (Taylor et al. 1995). The mangrove habitat in the central Florida location has been degraded through drastic alteration of vegetation, including loss of many black mangrove trees after construction of impoundments used for mosquito control (Provost 1977). The species' existence in salt marshes is so restricted and unusual that it is constantly in peril (Taylor 1989b). At least in the northern part of the range (Indian River Lagoon, Florida), the species depends on the presence of crab burrows, and crab populations have been declining (Taylor and Snelson 1992) and are only present in non-impounded marshes (Davis et al. 1995). Areas with more habitat disturbance may exhibit greater heterozygosity. For example, there were more heterozygous individuals in a site subjected to human modifications than in a site with less disturbance (Lubinski 1993).
A population in Venezuela exhibited reduction and loss of the pelvic fins. This may have resulted from extreme inbreeding (Taphorn 1980). The conservation significance of these conditions is uncertain.
Although this fish is used extensively in bioassays and cancer research, the demand for specimens has been minimal due to the ability to easily maintain this species in the laboratory where it spawns readily (Taylor 1988).
There is a need for continued studies on life history and population dynamics (Taylor and Snelson 1992), including rates of genetic exchange among populations given hermaphroditic reproduction. Minimum viable population size needs to be determined.
There is a need to search for additional populations in southern Florida (Taylor and Snelson 1992) as well as in both impounded and particularly non-impounded high marsh habitats in central Florida (Taylor et al. 1995).
Known occurrences of both Kryptolebias marmoratus and the land crab, Cardiosoma guanhumi, should be protected. Currently there are no regulations managing the land crab; the establishment of such regulations should be encouraged (Taylor et al. 1995). Continued and stringent protection of existing intact marsh and mangrove habitats is required (Taylor 1989b). This species is a good indicator of overall health of mangrove systems due to its close association with the mangrove habitat and its high sensitivity to habitat destruction including chemical toxins (Taylor et al. 1995).
Abel, D.C., Koenig, C.C. and Davis, W.P. 1987. Emersion in the mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus: a unique response to hydrogen sulfide. Environmental Biology of Fishes 18(1): 67-72.
Brockmann, F.W. 1975. An unusual habitat for the fish Rivulus marmoratus. Florida Scientist 38(1): 35-36.
Cole, K.S. and Noakes, D.L.G. 1997. Gonadal development and sexual allocation in mangrove killifish, Rivulus marmoratus (Pisces: Atherinomorpha). Copeia 1997(3): 596-600.
Davis, W.P., Taylor, D.S. and Turner, B.J. 1990. Field observations of the ecology and habits of mangrove rivulus (Rivulus marmoratus) in Belize and Florida (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 1(2): 123-134.
Davis, W.P., Taylor, D.S. and Turner, B.J. 1995. Does the autecology of the mangrove rivulus fish (Rivulus marmoratus) reflect a paradigm for mangrove ecosystem sensitivity? Bulletin of Marine Science 57(1): 208-214.
Eschmeyer, W.N. and Fricke,R. (editors). 2012. Catalog of Fishes electronic version (12 January 2012). Available at: http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 28 Feb 2012).
Fowler, H.W. 1928. Fishes from Florida and the West Indies. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 80: 451-473.
Gilbert, C.R. (ed.). 1992. Volume II. Fishes. In: R.E. Ashton, Jr. (ed.), Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, pp. xl + 247. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Harrington, R.W., Jr. 1961. Oviparous hermaphroditic fish with internal self-fertilization. Science 134: 1749-1750.
Harrington, R.W., Jr. 1971. How ecological and genetic factors interact to determine when self-fertilizing hermaphrodites of Rivulus marmoratus change into functional secondary males, with a reappraisal of the modes of intersexuality among fishes. Copeia 1971(3): 389-428.
Harrington, R.W., Jr. and Rivas, L.R. 1958. The discovery in Florida of the cyprinodont fish, Rivulus marmoratus, with a redescription and ecological notes. Copeia 1958(2): 125-130.
Hastings, R.W. 1969. Rivulus marmoratus Poey from the west coast of Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 32(1): 37-38.
Huehner, M.K., Schramm, M.E. and Hens, M.D. 1985. Notes on the behavior and ecology of the killifish Rivulus marmoratus Poey 1880 (Cyprinodontidae). Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 48(1): 1-7.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2014).
Kristensen, I. 1970. Competition in three cyprinodont fish species in the Netherlands Antilles. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and Other Caribbean Islands 32: 82-101.
Laughlin, T.F., Lubinski, B.A., Park, E.-H., Taylor, D.S. and Turner, B.J. 1995. Clonal stability and mutation in the self-fertilizing hermaphroditic fish, Rivulus marmoratus. The Journal of Heredity 86(5): 399-402.
Lee, D.S., Gilbert, C.R., Hocutt, C.H., Jenkins, R.E., McAllister, D.E. and Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Lin, H. and Dunson, W.A. 1993. The effect of salinity on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the tropical, estuarine, hermaphroditic fish, Rivulus marmoratus: A comparison of Cd, Cu, and Zn tolerance with Fundulus heteroclitus. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 25: 41-47.
Loftus, W.F. and Kushlan, J.A. 1987. Freshwater fishes of southern Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 31(4): 147-344.
Lubinsky, B. 1993. Using molecular genetic techniques to detect outcrossing in natural populations of a self-fertilizing fish. M.S. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Metcalfe, C.D. 1989. Tests for predicting carcinogenicity in fish. Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 1(1): 111-129.
Murphy, W.J., Thomerson, J.E. and Collier, G.E. 1999. Phylogeny of the Neotropical killifish family Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13: 289-301.
Nelson, J.S. 1984. Fishes of the world. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York.
Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the world. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York.
Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Perez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. and Williams, J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts.
Parenti, L.R. 1981. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of Cyprinodontiform fishes (Teleostei, Atherinomorpha). Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History 168: 335-557.
Park, E.-H., Change, H.-H., Joo, W.N., Chung, H.-S. and Kwak, H.-S. 1994. Assessment of the estuarine hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus as a useful euryhaline species for acute toxicity tests as shown using cadmium. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51: 280-285.
Provost, M.V. 1977. Source reduction in salt-marsh mosquito control: past and future. Mosquito News 37: 689-698.
Randall, T.A. and Poss, S.G. 1998. Species summary for Rivulus marmoratus. University of Southern Mississippi, Institute of Marine Sciences.
Ritchie, S.A. and Davis, W.P. 1986. Evidence for embryonic dispause in Rivulus marmoratus: laboratory and field observations. Journal of the American Killifish Association 19: 103-108.
Robins, C.R. and Ray, G.C. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society.
Seegers, L. 1984. Zur revision der Rivulus-arten Sundost-Brasiliens, mit einer Neubischreibung von Rivulus luelingi n. sp. und Rivulus caudomarginatus n. sp. Zool. Beitr N.F 28: 271-320.
Sola, L., Marzovillo, M., Rossi, A.R., Gornung, E., Bressanello, S. and Turner, B.J. 1997. Cytogenetic analysis of a self-fertilizing fish, Rivulus marmoratus: remarkable chromosomal constancy over a vast geographic range. Genome 40: 945-948.
Tabb, D.C. and Manning, R.B. 1961. A Checklist of the Flora and Fauna of Northern Florida Bay and Adjacent Brackish Waters of the Florida Mainland Collected During the Period July, 1957 through September, 1960. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean 11(4): 552-649.
Taphorn, D.C. 1980. First record of Rivulus marmoratus Poey, 1880 from the South American continent (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 55: 127-129.
Taylor, D.S. 1988. Observations on the ecology of the killifish Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontidae) in an infrequently flooded mangrove swamp. Northeast Gulf Science 10(1): 63-68.
Taylor, D.S. 1988. Room without a view. Natural History September: 26-33.
Taylor, D.S. 1990. Adaptive specializations of the cyprinodont fish Rivulus marmoratus. Florida Scientist 53(3): 239-247.
Taylor, D.S. 1992. Diet of the killifish Rivulus marmoratus collected from land crab burrows, with further ecological notes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 33: 389-393.
Taylor, D.S. 1993. Notes on the impact of the December 1989 freeze on local populations of Rivulus marmoratus in Florida, with additional distribution records in the state. Florida Scientist 56(3): 129-134.
Taylor, D.S. and Snelson, F.F., Jr. 1992. Mangrove rivulus Rivulus marmoratus. In: C.R. Carter (ed.), Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. II. Fishes, pp. 200-207. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Taylor, D.S., Davis, W.P. and Turner, B.J. 1995. Rivulus marmoratus: ecology of distributional patterns in Florida and the central Indian River Lagoon. Bulletin of Marine Science 57(1): 202-207.
Turner, B.J., Davis, W.P. and Taylor, D.S. 1992. Abundant males in populations of a selfing hermaphrodite fish, Rivulus marmoratus, from some Belize cays. Journal of Fish Biology 40: 307-310.
Turner, B.J., Elder, J.F., Jr. and Laughin, T.F. 1991. Repetitive DNA sequences and divergence of fish populations: some hopeful beginnings. Journal of Fish Biology 39: 131-142.
Turner, B.J., Elder, J.F., Jr., Laughlin, T.F. and Davis, W.P. 1990. Genetic variation in clonal vertebrates detected by simple-sequence DNA fingerprinting. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 87: 5653-5657.
Voss, G.L., Bayer, F.M., Robins, C.R., Gomon, M. and LaRoe, E.T. 1969. The Marine Ecology of the Biscayne National Monument. A Report to the National Park Service, Department of Interior. Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Miami.
Weibel, A.C., Dowling, T.E. and Turner, B.J. 1999. Evidence that an outcrossing population is a derived lineage in a hermaphroditic fish (Rivulus marmoratus). Evolution 53: 1217-1225.
|Citation:||NatureServe. 2014. Kryptolebias marmoratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T19735A19034633.Downloaded on 21 February 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|