Myxine hubbsoides 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Myxini Myxiniformes Myxinidae

Scientific Name: Myxine hubbsoides
Species Authority: Wisner & McMillan, 1995

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-11
Assessor(s): Mincarone, M.M.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B., Knapp, L. & Carpenter, K.E.
These species is only known from three type specimens collected off the coast of Chile. It's known restricted distribution likely overlaps with bottom trawling activities. It is listed as Data Deficient. More information is needed on this species distribution, population status, life history, biology, and impact of any potential major threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only off central Chile, between Navidad and Punta Topocalma (Wisner and McMillan 1995).
Countries occurrence:
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – southeast
Lower depth limit (metres): 880
Upper depth limit (metres): 735
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population of this species is only known from three type specimens taken off the central coast of Chile (Wisner and McMillan 1995).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found on the lower continental slope at depths from 735-820 m.

The copulatory organ is absent in this species. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known direct threats and bottom trawling activities along the continental slope in Chile have almost ceased, likely due to a collapse of the shallow water fisheries. While this species prefers deeper water it was likely vulnerable to historical bottom trawling activities. Mid-water fishing continues but this is not a threat to this species (R. Melendez pers. comm.). While the fishing threat has ceased, past activities may have significantly reduced the population through bycatch incidences and habitat destruction.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Chile has recently passed a bill to ban bottom trawling in vulnerable marine ecosystems, such as deep seamounts, but it is not likely that this ban covers the known distribution of this species. More research is needed on this species' biology, population size, distribution and potential threats.

Classifications [top]

11. Marine Deep Benthic -> 11.1. Marine Deep Benthic - Continental Slope/Bathyl Zone (200-4,000m) -> 11.1.2. Soft Substrate
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Patzner, R.A. 1998. Gonads and reproduction in hagfishes. In: J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber, and H. Malte (eds), The biology of hagfishes, pp. 378-395. Chapman & Hall, London.

Wisner, R.L. and McMillan, C.B. 1995. Review of new world hagfishes of the genus *Myxine* (Agnatha, Myxinidae) with descriptions of nine new species. Fisheries Bulletin 93(3): 530-550.

Citation: Mincarone, M.M. 2013. Myxine hubbsoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T196059A8989868. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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