Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Myxini Myxiniformes Myxinidae

Scientific Name: Myxine hubbsi
Species Authority: Wisner & McMillan, 1995

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-12
Assessor(s): Mincarone, M.M.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B., Knapp, L. & Carpenter, K.E.
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is considered common. Although there may be some deep-sea trawl fisheries operating within at least part of the depth and distributional range of this species, there is no current indication of widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is located in the eastern Pacific, from 33°N to 22°S. It can be found off North America, from San Diego (USA) to Baja California Sur (Mexico); off Central America, south of Nicoya Peninsula (Costa Rica); and off South America, from Talara (Peru) to about Tocopilla (Chile).
Countries occurrence:
Chile; Costa Rica; Mexico; Panama; Peru; United States
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
Lower depth limit (metres): 2440
Upper depth limit (metres): 1100
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is a deep-water species that is abundant across a wide range. Actual population levels are known from 150 museum specimens.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a deep-sea species living on the lower slopes and abyssal plains at depths from 1,100-2,440 m (Wisner and McMillan 1995). The sex ratio of the specimens examined by Wisner and McMillan (1995) was extremely unbalanced. Of 150 specimens sexed 114 (76%) were females, 35 (23%) hermaphroditic and six (0.4%) males. From 7-15 large eggs, ranging between 17 x 6 mm and 24 x 8 mm, occur in eight females (415-450 mm); all other females have small eggs. The largest number of eggs (15) was in a female of 440 mm.

The copulatory organ is absent in this species. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known direct threats to this species but it is potentially vulnerable to deep sea trawling activity in same parts of its depth and distributional range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures in place, but more research is needed on this species' biology, population size, distribution and impact of deep-sea trawling activities on the species (bycatch) and its habitats.

Classifications [top]

11. Marine Deep Benthic -> 11.1. Marine Deep Benthic - Continental Slope/Bathyl Zone (200-4,000m) -> 11.1.1. Hard Substrate
suitability: Marginal  
11. Marine Deep Benthic -> 11.1. Marine Deep Benthic - Continental Slope/Bathyl Zone (200-4,000m) -> 11.1.2. Soft Substrate
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Patzner, R.A. 1998. Gonads and reproduction in hagfishes. In: J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber, and H. Malte (eds), The biology of hagfishes, pp. 378-395. Chapman & Hall, London.

Wisner, R.L. and McMillan, C.B. 1995. Review of new world hagfishes of the genus *Myxine* (Agnatha, Myxinidae) with descriptions of nine new species. Fisheries Bulletin 93(3): 530-550.

Citation: Mincarone, M.M. 2013. Myxine hubbsi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T196058A8989438. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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