Eptatretus laurahubbsae 

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Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Myxini Myxiniformes Myxinidae

Scientific Name: Eptatretus laurahubbsae McMillan & Wisner, 1984
Taxonomic Notes: The name was corrected to Eptatretus laurahubbsae by Wisner and McMillan (1988). Morphological evidence suggests that specimens of E. laurahubbsae could be juveniles of E. carlhubbsi. Further analyses are necessary to confirm this suspicion.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2009-11-10
Assessor(s): Mincarone, M.M.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B., Knapp, L. & Carpenter, K.E.
This species may be endemic to Juan Fernández Island, Chile. It is known from only eight specimens found at 2,400 m depth. There are no known threats likely to affect this species, given its deep water habitat. In addition, Chile has recently passed measures to ban deep water trawling of seamounts and other vulnerable marine ecosystems around Juan Fernández Island. It is listed as Least Concern. However, more research is needed on this species population, biology, life history, and potential impacts.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from Juan Fernández Island, Chile (33°31'S, 78°50'W) (McMillan and Wisner 1984).
Countries occurrence:
Chile (Juan Fernández Is.)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – southeast
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):2400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is known only by eight specimens and may be endemic to Juan Fernández Island, Chile.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is deep-sea species was collected at 2,400 m depth.

This is an insular species. The copulatory organ is absent in this species. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is no information on type and scale of threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Chile has recently passed a bill to ban bottom trawling in vulnerable marine ecosystems, such as deep seamounts, including those around Juan Fernández Island. More research is needed on this species' biology, population size, distribution and potential threats.

Classifications [top]

11. Marine Deep Benthic -> 11.1. Marine Deep Benthic - Continental Slope/Bathyl Zone (200-4,000m) -> 11.1.2. Soft Substrate

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2017).

McMillan, C.B. and Wisner, R.L. 1984. Three new species of seven-gilled hagfishes (Myxinidae, Eptatretus) from the Pacific Ocean. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 43(16): 249-267.

Patzner, R.A. 1998. Gonads and reproduction in hagfishes. In: J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber, and H. Malte (eds), The biology of hagfishes, pp. 378-395. Chapman & Hall, London.

Wisner, R.L. and McMillan, C.B. 1988. A new species of hagfish, genus Eptatretus (Cyclostomata, Myxinidae), from the Pacific Ocean near Valparaiso, Chile, with new data on E. bischoffii and E. polytrema. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 21(14): 227-244.

Citation: Mincarone, M.M. 2011. Eptatretus laurahubbsae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T196029A8995263. . Downloaded on 22 May 2018.
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