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Eptatretus fritzi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MYXINI MYXINIFORMES MYXINIDAE

Scientific Name: Eptatretus fritzi
Species Authority: Wisner & McMillan, 1990
Common Name(s):
English Guadalupe Hagfish
Spanish Bruja de Guadalupe

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-10
Assessor(s): Mincarone, M.M.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B., Knapp, L. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
This species may be endemic to Guadalupe Island, Mexico. It is known from over 350 museum specimens, and is a deepwater species, as specimens were recorded between 187 and 2,743 m. There are no known threats likely to affect this species, given its deep water habitat and it is therefore listed as Least Concern. However, more research is needed on this species population, biology, life history, and potential threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the vicinity of Guadalupe Island, Mexico (Wisner and McMillan 1990).
Countries:
Native:
Mexico (Guadalupe I.)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – eastern central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is only known from 358 museum specimens.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found on the slopes and deep-sea floor at depths from 183-2,743 m. According to Wisner and McMillan (1990), of 358 specimens for which sex could be reliably determined, 60% were female and 40% male. The largest egg, 33.8 x 8.5 mm, occurred among 14 eggs in a 386 mm female. No more than 16 and as few as 10 almost fully developed eggs were found in any female. No eggs had free anchor filaments. Eptatretus fritzi and E. deani occur sympatrically near Guadalupe Island, where they were taken in the same trap on two occasions (Wisner and McMillan 1990).

It is an insular rather than a coastal species. The copulatory organ is absent in this species. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is no information known on type and scale of threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures in place for this species, but more research is needed on its biology, population size, distribution and impacts. This species may be endemic to Guadalupe Island but more research is necessary to verify this.

Bibliography [top]

Fernholm, B. and Paxton, J.R. 1998. Myxinidae. Hagfishes. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), The living marine resources of the western Central Pacific. Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians and sharks., pp. 1192. Rome.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Patzner, R.A. 1998. Gonads and reproduction in hagfishes. In: J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber, and H. Malte (eds), The biology of hagfishes, pp. 378-395. Chapman & Hall, London.

Wisner, R.L. and McMillan, C.B. 1990. Three new species of hagfishes, genus Eptatretus (Cyclostomata, Myxinidae), from the Pacific coast of North America, with new data on E. deani and E. stoutii. Fisheries Bulletin 88: 787-804.


Citation: Mincarone, M.M. 2013. Eptatretus fritzi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 November 2014.
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