|Scientific Name:||Conus guinaicus|
|Species Authority:||Hwass in Bruguière, 1793|
Conus adansonii Lamarck, 1810
Conus grayi Reeve, 1844
|Taxonomic Notes:||There is a separate population on the Gorée Island at the southern tip of the Dakar peninsular, that is currently under review, as it may be a distinct form, and results of the molecular analysis may assist to determine the status of these populations (E. Monnier pers. comm, 2011).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Tenorio, M.J. & Seddon, M.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Seddon, M. & Peters, H.|
This species is found along a coastline that is subject to domestic and industrial pollution in addition to risks associated with commercial shipping including oil transporation, especially into Dakar at the northern end of its range. There have been declining populations in the north due to pollution, and in the south due to recreational activities disturbing habitats (E. Monnier pers. comm. 2011). However, at present, trade prices for shells do not indicate scarcity. The species is considered to be Vulnerable under the B criterion: VU B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii).
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Senegal from Dakar south to Mbour a coastal distance of approx 95 km. Estimated AOO is based on headlands and rocky areas, not in the intervening regions with sandy patches, as the species is not present there, however, as the major threat is pollution, the number of locations is estimated as 4-6. There is no information on the fragmentation of this species. However, much of the land adjoining the entire length of this coast has been developed. Dakar at the northern end of its range is a large metropolis (pop 2.5m) with resultant industrial and commercial pollution risk and Mbour (pop 0.2m) at the southern end is also source of serious marine pollution (UNEP 2009).
A separate and distinct population occurs off Gorée Island at the southern tip of the Dakar peninsular (Monteiro et al. 2004).
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||94|
|Number of Locations:||6-10|
|Lower depth limit (metres):||5|
|Upper depth limit (metres):||1|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no records of population levels for this species in the literature. There have been declining populations in the north due to pollution, and in the south due to recreational activities disturbing habitats (E. Monnier pers. comm. 2011).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in rocky areas and headlands where it is found in shallow water down to approx 5 m. Adults of the species typically grow to 50 mm in length.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||
In common with all Conus spp. and other molluscs, the shells of this species are traded for the specimen shell market. There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed. Their shells may also be gathered for the local tourist market and by tourists visiting the country.
Shells for sale on the mollusc shell market as reported through specialist websites and dealer catalogues (Rice 2007) with medium prices may indicate reasonable abundance of this species.
There have been declining populations in the north, due to pollution. Its limited distribution along a highly developed coastline including the port facilities of Dakar indicates that there will be stresses arising from effluent and industrial and marine pollution along most of this species' range.
Marine pollutants along the whole of this coastline, in particular around the Cap Vert Peninsular, from industrial and domestic discharges including sewage, chemicals and other toxins, presents a severe problem to marine creatures living in the area (UNEP 2009).
In the south, the population is impacted by recreational activities disturbing habitats.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.|
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Monteiro, A., Tenorio, M.J. and Poppe, G.T. 2004. The Family Conidae, The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus. In: Poppe, G.T and Groh, K. (eds), A Conchological Iconography, pp. 270. ConchBooks, Hackenheim.
Rice, T. 2007. A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Shells: Marine, Land and Freshwater. Sea and Shore Publications.
United Nations Environment Programme. 2009. Regional Overview of Land-based Sources and Activities Affecting the Coastal and Associated Freshwater Environment in the West and Central African Region. UNEP/ GPA Co-ordination Office & West and Central Africa Action Plan, Regional Co-ordinating Unit.
|Citation:||Monnier, E. 2012. Conus guinaicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T192613A2127915. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T192613A2127915.en . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.|
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