|Scientific Name:||Conus aulicus Linnaeus, 1758|
Conus auratus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
Conus gracianus da Motta, 1982
Conus particolor Perry, 1810
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Peters, H. & Poppe, G.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Harwell, H., Peters, H. & Coggan, A.|
This species occurs throughout the Indo-Pacific from East Africa to French Polynesia and the Marshall Islands. As a wide ranging species with no obvious threats this has been assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species occurs throughout the Indo-Pacific from East Africa to French Polynesia and the Marshall Islands. (Röckel et al. 1995). The EOO, AOO and number of locations exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2.|
Native:American Samoa; Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland); Bahrain; Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China (Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang); Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Disputed Territory (Paracel Is., Spratly Is.); Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Japan (Kyushu, Shikoku); Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Macao; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Qatar; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen (South Yemen)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widespread but not common. It naturally occurs in low abundances (G. Poppe pers. comm. 2011).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found on exposed coasts with heavily aerated water. In the Philippines, it occurs on sand with algae. It preys upon gastropods. Adults can grow up to a maximum length of 163 mm, although they will typically be smaller than this (Röckel et al. 1995).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Use and Trade:||In common with all Conus spp. this species is traded by specimen shell dealers for the collector market. It is also gathered for the local tourist market and by tourists visiting the country. There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed, however shells are typically sold in the mid range with large specimens reaching high prices. There is plentiful availability on the market (Rice 2007). This species' venom contains peptides that are being developed for biomedical use (Livett et al. 2004).|
Given the wide range of the species there are no obvious threats.
|Conservation Actions:||No known conservation measures for this species at present. It occurs in marine protected areas on ocean coasts in the Philippines (G. Poppe pers. comm. 2011).|
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Livett, B.G., Gayler, K.R. and Khalil, Z. 2004. Drugs from the sea: conopeptides as potential therapeutics. Current Medicinal Chemistry 11: 1715-1723.
Rice, T. 2007. A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Shells: Marine, Land and Freshwater. Sea and Shore Publications.
Röckel, D., Korn, W. & Kohn, A.J. 1995. Manual of the Living Conidae, Vol 1. Verlag Christa Hemmen.
|Citation:||Kohn, A. 2013. Conus aulicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T192563A2116090.Downloaded on 26 September 2017.|