Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus bulbus
Species Authority: Reeve, 1843
Conus alexandrinus Kaicher, 1977
Conus angolensis Paes Da Franca, 1957
Conus negroides Kaicher, 1977
Conus lineopunctatus Kaicher, 1977
Taxonomic Notes: All Angolan endemics are placed under subgenus Varioconus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-10-28
Assessor(s): Monnier, E.
Reviewer(s): Tenorio, M.J., Seddon, M. & Peters, H.
Contributor(s): Veldsman, S.G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Peters, H. & Seddon, M.
This species is endemic to the coast of Angola from Benguela in the north to just north of Lucira a distance of approximately 400 km following the coast. The species is common within the range (E. Monnier pers. comm. 2011), with many locations along the coast. There are no specific current threats from urban development or other major anthropogenic factors. Oil prospecting has been carried out along Angola's coast and eventually oil exploration may have an effect on Angola's coast in the future, but there is no current development of these activities. The species has been assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the coast of Angola from Benguela in the north to just north of Lucira, a distance of approximately 400 km following the coast (Monteiro et al. 2004).  The species is common within the range (E. Monnier pers. comm. 2004), with many locations along the coast. The extent of its range is probably more than 400 km, with new populations found in central and south Angola (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).
Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – southeast
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 800
Number of Locations: 15
Lower depth limit (metres): 10
Upper depth limit (metres): 1
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There are no data on the population levels for this species, but it is commonly available for sale. The maximum size of specimen is 31 mm. Together with C. aemulus, this is the most common Conus species in Angola (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: Unknown Population severely fragmented: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species has been found in sand in shallow water (Poppe and Poppe 2011) and down to 10 m in mud (Filmer 2001).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

The shells of this species are traded for the specialist Conus shell market only. As a result, the level of off-take is low (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known threats to this species at the present time. It occurs in central and south Angola and hence away from the capital, so that pollution is not a  problem for this species (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011). Oil prospection has been going on along the Angolan coast, but there is no further development on this at the moment, so this is not considered a current threat; it may be more significant in the future if oil drilling commences (M. J. Tenorio and S. Veldsman pers. comm. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.6. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Muddy
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.1. Oil spills
♦ timing: Future ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting

Bibliography [top]

Filmer, R.M. 2001. A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae, 1758-1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Monteiro, A., Tenorio, M.J. and Poppe, G.T. 2004. The Family Conidae, The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus. In: Poppe, G.T and Groh, K. (eds), A Conchological Iconography, pp. 270. ConchBooks, Hackenheim.

Poppe, G. T. and Poppe, P. 1996-2011. Conchology, Inc. Mactan Available at: (Accessed: March 2011).

Citation: Monnier, E. 2012. Conus bulbus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T192283A2065503. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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