Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus anabelae
Species Authority: Rolán & Röckel, 2001

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-10-26
Assessor(s): Tenorio, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Seddon, M. & Monnier, E.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Seddon, M. & Peters, H.
This species has a range restricted to the Bay of Moçâmedes surrounding the town and port of Namibe.  The port is the focus of potential large scale development with accompanying dredging. Such development might cause localized problems in the future, however, the port has been present for years so that in its current state it has not had an impact on the species. Oil prospecting has been carried out along Angola's coast and eventual oil exploration may have an effect on Angola's coast in the future, but there is no current development of these activities. At present, the species has been listed as Least Concern, however, should the threats start to impact the Bay, then a conservation re-assessment will be required to ensure the species will not be impacted.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the area surrounding Namibe (Moçâmedes) in the far south of Angola with Praia das Conchas to the north and Praia de Noronha to the south (Monteiro et al. 2004). Namibe is situated in Moçâmedes Bay with a coast of approximately 50-60 km to which the species is restricted.
Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – southeast
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 32
Number of Locations: 1
Lower depth limit (metres): 20
Upper depth limit (metres): 10
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There are no records of population levels for this species in the literature.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: Unknown Population severely fragmented: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species has been found buried in sand under rocks at shallow depths (Filmer 2001, amended 2009). It occurs in sympatry with C. filmeri. Adults reach approximately 20 mm length.
Systems: Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The shells of this species are traded for the specialist Conus shell market only. As a result, the level of off-take is low (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

This species is endemic to Angola where it is restricted to a 50-60 km stretch of coastline. A major redevelopment of the Port of Namibe has been agreed, financed by the Government of Japan ( that will entail large scale dredging of the area. Oil prospection has been going on along the Angolan coast, but there is no further development on this at the moment, so this is not considered a current threat; it may be more significant in the future if oil drilling commences (M. J. Tenorio and S. Veldsman pers. comm. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is restricted in its range and scarce in the market and would benefit from further research into abundance and threats (impacts of port development) before any action plan can be formulated. There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing: Future ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Whole (>90%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.1. Oil spills
♦ timing: Future ♦ scope: Whole (>90%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting

Bibliography [top]

Filmer, R.M. 2001. A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae, 1758-1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Monteiro, A., Tenorio, M.J. and Poppe, G.T. 2004. The Family Conidae, The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus. In: Poppe, G.T and Groh, K. (eds), A Conchological Iconography, pp. 270. ConchBooks, Hackenheim.

Citation: Tenorio, M.J. 2012. Conus anabelae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T192260A2062279. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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