Oligodon booliati 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Colubridae

Scientific Name: Oligodon booliati Leong & Grismer, 2004
Common Name(s):
English Boo-Liat's Kukri Snake
Taxonomic Notes: The species was described in 2004, although specimens are known since 1962 (Leong & Grismer 2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-08-31
Assessor(s): Iskandar, D., Jenkins, H., Das, I., Auliya, M., Inger, R.F., Lilley, R. & Grismer, L.
Reviewer(s): García, N. & Bowles, P.
This species is only known from a single location on the island of Tioman, a patch of less than 100 km2 which is all that remains of the original forest. This forest is not legally protected and deforestation is already becoming a problem. As the island itself has an area of little over 130 km2, ongoing commercial development activities are likely to further accelerate habitat loss. In addition, due to the very small size of the population, there is also the potential for stochastic events to lead to extinction (R. Inger pers. comm. 2011). The species is listed as Critically Endangered as it is confined to an area of less than 100 km2, it is found in a single location at risk from development, and there is a continuing decline in the quality and extent of remaining forest habitat. In addition, as it is projected that the present rate of habitat loss due to deforestation could lead to the destruction of the entire forested area, and hence a reduction in the population of this snake by as much as 100%, in the next 10 years.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This species is endemic to the Seribuat Archipelago in West Malaysia, where it is only known to occur on Tioman island (Grismer et al. 2006). The maximum area in which this species is known to be distributed is the area of forest on the island, which is less than 100 km².

Countries occurrence:
Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Two specimens were recorded at 98 m. asl. in one pitfall trap (I. Das pers. comm. 2011). Only three specimens are known and were used to describe the species. There are no population data available for this species. Due to the rate of deforestation on Tioman, which may result in the complete loss of forest from the island within the next 10 years, the species is likely to be already declining or to decline in the near future, and is likely to become extinct within the same time period without preventative action to preserve its forest habitat.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

This fossorial species is found on leaf litter in lowland forest.


Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

This species is not used or traded.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The forests of Tioman are not protected and are currently subject to private management. The island is a well-known tourist destination and development for both residential and tourist areas is both ongoing and expanding, which is degrading and removing this species' forest habitat at a rate which may result in the complete loss of forest from the island within ten years.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

While there are no direct conservation measures for this species in place at present, most of Tioman was declared a 'state wildlife reserve' in 1972 (Ng et al. 1999). According to I. Das (pers. comm. 2011), this is not part of the protected area system and is currently under of the management of private hands.

Twenty additional lizards and snakes are endemic to the same forest patch, making this a priority area for conservation in Malaysia (I. Das and G. Vogel pers. comm. 2011). Conservation measures should be undertaken, along with further research into the trends in abundance, and the impact of altered habitat status on this species. Due to the number of endemic species known to be present in the island, the distribution should be included within the national protected area system.

Further research into the abundance, habitat requirements and ecology of this species is suggested, and population monitoring is recommended.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Unknown ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Grismer, L.L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. and Grismer, J.L. 2006. Checklist of the herpetofauna of the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia with comments on biogeography, natural history and adaptive types. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54(1): 157-180.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Citation: Iskandar, D., Jenkins, H., Das, I., Auliya, M., Inger, R.F., Lilley, R. & Grismer, L. 2012. Oligodon booliati. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T192046A2032748. . Downloaded on 18 September 2018.
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