|Scientific Name:||Chlorurus sordidus|
|Species Authority:||(Forsskål, 1775)|
Callyodon albipunctatus Seale, 1910
Callyodon bipallidus Smith, 1956
Callyodon cyanogrammus Jordan & Seale, 1901
Callyodon erythrodon (Valenciennes, 1840)
Callyodon margaritus (Cartier, 1874)
Callyodon rostratus Seale, 1910
Callyodon sordidus (Forsskål, 1775)
Pseudosarus troschellii flavoguttata Steindachner, 1887
Pseudoscarus goldiei Macleay, 1883
Pseudoscarus margaritus Cartier, 1874
Pseudoscarus platodoni Seale, 1901
Pseudoscarus vitriolinus Bryan, 1906
Scaridea leucotaeniata Fowler, 1944
Scarus celebicus Bleeker, 1854
Scarus erythrodon Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus gymnognathos Bleeker, 1853
Scarus margaritus (Cartier, 1874)
Scarus mentalis Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus nigricans Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus purpureus Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus sordidus Forsskål, 1775
Scarus spilurus Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus sumbawensis Bleeker, 1848
Scarus variegatus Valenciennes, 1840
Xanothon bipallidus (Smith, 1956)
Xanothon erythrodon (Valenciennes, 1840)
Xanothon margaritus (Cartier, 1874)
|Taxonomic Notes:||The widespread species Chlorurus sordidus is now partitioned into C. sordidus (Forsskål 1775), in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean and Chlorurus spilurus (Valenciennes 1840), in the Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean based on mitochondrial sequence and morphology data (Bay et al. 2004, Randall 2010, Beck 2010). It is likely that the Red Sea population will also be distinct (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is one of the most widespread and abundant of the Indian Ocean parrotfishes. Its small size precludes targeted fishing and it is found in marine protected areas in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found from the Red Sea, to the Gulf of Aden, Oman, Persian Gulf, Pakistan and India. In East Africa it is found to KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eastwards to Madagascar, western Thailand, southwest Sumatra, Java, Cocos and Christmas Island.|
Native:Bahrain; British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Archipelago); Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island), Rodrigues); Mayotte; Mozambique; Myanmar; Oman; Qatar; Réunion; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is abundant in all reef environments investigated (Randall and Bruce 1983). In the central Indian Ocean at the Seychelles and Cocos Island, densities range from 15-180 adults per 1,000 m2. In the Arabian Gulf, it extends to Bahrain. It may occur in the northern Gulf but is extremely rare. It is rare in the Musandum Peninsula and the Arabian Gulf, densities range from 2-8 adults per 1,000 m2 (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a small species with an average length of ~15 cm TL over its range. The maximum size was recorded at 26 cm (TL) but achieves 39 cm (TL) in Musudam Peninsula, Oman. The maximum age recorded was 14 yrs (Oman). In the central Indian Ocean, the maximum age recorded was 8 years (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009). Juveniles recruit into sheltered reef environments including seagrass beds (Heemstra and Heemstra 2004). It forms schools of 50 or more.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is collected for food in subsistence and artisanal fisheries.|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
Bay, L.K., Choat, J.H., Van Herwerden, L. and Robertson, D.R. 2004. High genetic diversities and complex genetic structure in an Indo-Pacific tropical reef fish (Chlorurus sordidus): evidence of an unstable evolutionary past? Marine Biology 144: 757-767.
Beck, E. 2010. Phylogeography of three Indo-Pacific parrotfishes (Family Labridae). School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University.
Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., et al.. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039825.
Heemstra, P. and Heemstra, E. 2004. Coastal Fishes of Southern Africa. South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity and National Inquiry Service Center, Grahamstown, South Africa.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Randall, J.E. 2010. Shore Fishes of Hawaii: Revised Edition. University of Hawai'I Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
Randall, J.E. and Bruce, R.W. 1983. The parrotfishes of the subfamily Scarinae of the Western Indian Ocean with descriptions of three new species. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 47: 1-39.
Smith, L.L., Fessler, J.L., Alfaro, M.E., Streelman, J.T. and Westneat, M.W. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of regulatory gene sequences in the parrotfishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 136-152.
Westneat, M. W. and Alfaro, M.E. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the reef fish family Labridae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 370–390.
|Citation:||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus sordidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 January 2015.|
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