Apodemus flavicollis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Rodentia Muridae

Scientific Name: Apodemus flavicollis (Melchior, 1834)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Yellow-necked Field Mouse
French Mulot à collier
Spanish Ratón Leonado
Apodemus arianus (Blanford, 1881)
Apodemus ponticus
Taxonomic Notes: It is very probable that Apodemus ponticus and A. flavicollis are conspecific, and that their recognition as different species arose because the Cold War prevented comparison of populations on either side of the Iron Curtain (B. Kryštufek and V. Vohralik pers. comm. 2006). A. ponticus was reported by Russian authors from the Caucasus and Transcaucasia. Authors who studied Apodemus from most northeastern Turkey (close to the Georgian border) did not find any difference between these populations and other Turkish populations of A. flavicollis (Frynta et al. 2001, Macholan et al. 2001, B. Kryštufek unpubl. data). Individuals captured on the Turkey-Georgia border formed fertile hybrids with A. flavicollis from Austria (Steiner 1978). Thus, the range of ponticus is arbitrarily defined by political borders: populations from the extreme NE Turkey (close to Georgian border) are classified as flavicollis, those across the border as ponticus. If the Asiatic phylogroup of A. flavicollis is indeed an independent species, than arianus predates all other names, including ponticus (B. Kryštufek pers. comm. 2006).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-09-10
Assessor(s): Amori, G., Hutterer, R., Kryštufek, B., Yigit, N., Mitsain, G. & Palomo, L.J.
Reviewer(s): Cassola, F.
This is a common and widespread species with no major threats affecting the population.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The yellow-necked mouse has a large range extending from Great Britain across much of continental Europe to the Urals (Russian Federation). It also found occurs through Turkey east to W Armenia, the Zagros Mountains of Iran and south to Syria, Lebanon and Israel.

In Europe, it is generally widespread, although it is absent from southern Iberia, western France, northern and central Fennoscandia and Russia, and most islands (including Ireland). It is present on some east Mediterranean islands. Occurs from sea level up to 1,850 m (Spitzenberger 2002).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Armenia; Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1850
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a common species throughout much of its range. Populations appear generally stable (natural fluctuations occur). Densities of more than 100 individuals per hectare have been recorded in eastern Europe (Montgomery 1999).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits a variety of woodland habitats. It tends to be a forest edge species, but in the Alps it lives within forests (F. Spitzenberger in litt. 2006). Also occurs in open shrublands and secondary habitats. Its spatial distribution in large forest areas is related to the productivity and spatial distribution of forest trees with heavy seeds, mainly oak and hazel (Juškaitis 2002).
Generation Length (years):1

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Globally there are no major threats. Locally, habitat degradation due to agriculture may cause population declines. In the UK, the species occupied a wider distribution in historic times and has undergone a range contraction associated with the conversion of ancient woodland to agricultural land (Battersby 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in protected areas across its range. No specific conservation measures are recommended.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

Bibliography [top]

Battersby, J. 2005. UK Mammals: Species Status and Population Trends. First Report by the Tracking Mammals Partnership. JNCC / The Tracking Mammals Partnership.

Frynta, D., Mikulová, P., Suchomelová, E. and Sádlova, J. 2001. Discriminant analysis of morphometric characters in four species of Apodemus (Rodentia: Muridae) from eastern Turkey and Iran. Israel Journal of Zoology 47: 243-258.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Juškaitis, R. 2002. Spatial distribution of the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) in large forest areas and its relation with seed crop of forest trees. Mammalian Biology 67(4): 206–211.

Macholán, M., Filippucci, M. G., Benda, P., Frynta, D. and Sádlová, J. 2001. Allozyme variation and systematics of the genus Apodemus (Rodentia: Muridae) in Asia Minor and Iran. Journal of Mammalogy 82: 799-813.

Montgomery, W. I. 1999. Apodemus flavicollis. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, Academic Press, London, UK.

Musser, G.G. and Carleton, M.D. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. In: D.E. Wilson and D.A. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: a geographic and taxonomic reference, pp. 894-1531. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Steiner, H. M. 1978. Taxonomic status and geographical distribution of Apodemus microps Kratochvil & Rosicky, 1952. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 58: 1430-1432.

Citation: Amori, G., Hutterer, R., Kryštufek, B., Yigit, N., Mitsain, G. & Palomo, L.J. 2016. Apodemus flavicollis (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T1892A115058023. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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