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Pudu mephistophiles 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Cervidae

Scientific Name: Pudu mephistophiles
Species Authority: (de Winton, 1896)
Common Name(s):
English Northern Pudu
Spanish Pudu Norteño, Ciervo Enamo, Sachacabra, Venadito De Los Páramos, Venado Conejo
French Pudu Du Nord, Poudou Du Nord

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Barrio, J. & Tirira, D.
Reviewer(s): Black, P. & Gonzalez, S. (Deer Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species is considered to be Vulnerable in light of an ongoing decline, and because remaining small populations are fragmented into numerous subpopulations in the high Andes - where no subpopulation exceeds 1,000 mature individuals. This species occurs in very low densities throughout its range, is poorly known and more information is necessary in order to quantitatively measure threats and rates of decline due to hunting and habitat conversion – and thus if it might also qualify for population reduction threat criteria, however, insufficient information is currently available. Indirect estimates based on past distribution and habitat loss would consider the species is in a notable decline due to habitat reduction and expanding human settlements. Although humans rarely hunt the species today, it was intensively persecuted in the middle part of the century.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occupies a discontinuous and probably fragmented range through the montane forests and their limit with the humid grasslands of the Andes in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Exact range is unknown and distributional gaps between records are unresolved. The only known natural gap is the Maranon dry forest lying in between the Ecuadorian population and the Peruvian population south of the Maranon. The current extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 90,000-130,000 km² and is split between two populations; the southern population
30,000-35,000 km² and the northern population 60,000-95,000 km².
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):1700
Upper elevation limit (metres):4000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Populations in central Peru clearly isolated from populations in Peruvian northern Andes, Ecuador and Colombia. There are new records in the former larger gap between populations; however, the gap still covers the breadth of the Maranon dry forest (Barrio, in prep.). Given the habitat type covering the gap, there is no expectation that an individual will ever appear there, besides accidentally.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits elfin, cloud and montane forests throughout its distribution, and in humid grasslands above the tree-line mainly by the northern population, between 2,000 and 4,000 m. It moves in the undergrowth when it is inside forest. The small size makes the species difficult to detect.
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Northern pudu was intensively exploited by local people from the 1950s to early 1980s (Hershkovitz 1982). However, nowadays habitat conversion and predation by domestic dogs are worse threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Recommended conservation actions include: undertake comprehensive status surveys and develop research program to determine ecology, habitat requirements, population biology, and extent of threats; strengthen existing protected areas management where necessary; in areas where subsistence hunting proves to be a serious threat, seek alternative subsistence schemes or more sustainable harvesting methods; develop conservation education programs and increase law enforcement if necessary. The species occurs in several protected areas across its range; some of these are without management plans and many receive insufficient resources to enable adequate protection.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.1. Linked enterprises & livelihood alternatives

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Barnett, A.A. 1999. Small Mammals of the Cajas Plateau, Southern Ecaudor: Ecology and Natural History. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 42(4): 161-217.

Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Grimwood, I. R. 1969. Notes on the distribution and status of some Peruvian mammals, 1968. New York Zoological Society Special Publication 21: 83.

Hershkovitz, P. 1982. Neotropical deer (Cervidae) part I, Pudus, Genus Pudu Gray. Fieldiana: Zoology 11: 1-86.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Pacheco, V. 2002. Protección de la biodiversidad en bosques montanos fragmentados y propuesta para conservar el bosque de Carpish, Huanuco. Informe final. CONCYTEC, proyecto 078, Lima, Perú.

Tirira, D.G. 2007. Guía de Campo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Ediciones Murciélago Blanco. Publicación especial sobre los mamíferos del Ecuador 6, Quito, Ecuador.


Citation: Barrio, J. & Tirira, D. 2008. Pudu mephistophiles. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T18847A8647714. . Downloaded on 24 September 2016.
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