Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Labridae

Scientific Name: Pteragogus flagellifer
Species Authority: (Valenciennes, 1839)
Common Name(s):
English Cocktail fish, Cocktail wrasse, Flagfin wrasse, Wrasse
Cossyphus filamentosus Peters, 1855
Crenilabrus nematopterus Bleeker, 1851
Ctenolabrus flagellifer Valenciennes, 1839
Ctenolabrus flagellifer Valenciennes, 1839
Daymaeria flagellifera (Valenciennes, 1839)
Daymaeria flagellifera (Valenciennes, 1839)
Duymaeria caeruleomaculata Günther, 1862
Duymaeria flagellifera (Valenciennes, 1839)
Duymaeria flagellifera (Valenciennes, 1839)
Labrus ramentosus Forsskål, 1775
Pteragogus flagellifera (Valenciennes, 1839)
Pteragogus flagellifera (Valenciennes, 1839)
Pteragogus flagelliferum (Valenciennes, 1839)
Pteragogus flagelliferum (Valenciennes, 1839)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-03-25
Assessor(s): Sadovy, Y. & Pontillas, J.
Reviewer(s): Craig, M.T. & Carpenter, K.E.
This species is widespread in a variety of habitats with no known major threats and therefore is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found from the Red Sea to South Africa, east to Vanuatu, north to southern Japan (Kochi Prefectory),Taiwan, and south to central northwestern Australia (Burgess and Axelrod 1974, Yogo et al. 1986, Parenti and Randall 2000).
Countries occurrence:
Australia; Bahrain; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mauritius; Mozambique; New Caledonia; Oman; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; United Arab Emirates; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Lower depth limit (metres): 30
Upper depth limit (metres): 2
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is common in sheltered bays (Kuiter et al. 2002). There is no population information available for this species. It is very rare in southern Japan (Masuda et al. 1975). It is rare in the Calamianes group of islands, Philippines but this may be because of its cryptic habit (Werner and Allen 2000).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species is found among algae patches (especially in mixed Sargassum and seagrasses), soft corals with mixed rubble or rocky reefs (Kuiter 2002). It is seen singly in weedy rocky areas. It sleeps below large rocks and macroalgae.

The maximum recorded sizes were 20.0 cm TL (male) and 15 cm TL (female) (Randall 1986), 27 cm (TL) (Masuda et al. 1975).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is edible but not tasty (Masuda et al. 1984).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.3. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
suitability: Marginal  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.7. Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
suitability: Marginal  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Burgess, W.E. and Axelrod, H.R. 1973. Pacific Marine Fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Masuda, H., Araga, C. and Yoshino, T. 1975. Coastal fishes of southern Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan.

Parenti, P. and Randall, J.E. 2000. An annotated checklist of the species of the labroid fish families Labridae and Scaridae. Ichthyological Bulletin J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 68: 97.

Randall, J.E. 1986. Labridae. In: M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds), Smiths' sea fishes, pp. 683-706. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Werner, T.B. and Allen, G.R. 2000. A rapid marine biodiversity assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17. Conservation International, Washington, D.C.

Wood, L.J. 2007. MPA Global: A database of the world’s marine protected areas. Available at:

Yogo, Y., Matsui, S., Mochioka, N. and Saburomaru, T. 1986. Fishes of the Island of Okino-shima- a preliminary checklist of the fishes of the island of Okino-shima. Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture- Kyushu University 40(2-3): 183-189.

Citation: Sadovy, Y. & Pontillas, J. 2010. Pteragogus flagellifer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T187684A8600071. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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