|Scientific Name:||Oxycheilinus bimaculatus|
|Species Authority:||(Valenciennes, 1840)|
Cheilinus bimaculatus Valenciennes, 1840
Cheilinus melanopleura Bleeker, 1865
Cheilinus mossambicus Günther, 1862
Cheilinus ceramensis Bleeker, 1852
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||To, A., Liu, M., Rocha, L. & Craig, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.|
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific, and is common in some parts of its range. There are no major threats known to this species. It is listed as Least Concern. However, more information on population trends and its harvest level is needed.
|Range Description:||This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific and is found from Eastern Africa and the Red Sea to the Hawaiian Islands and the Marquesas, north to Japan and south to Australia.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; China; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There is no population information available for this species. It can be common in some parts of its range. There are occasional accounts on the relative abundance of this species.
In Pondoland coast of South Africa where only six individuals of O. bimaculatus were recorded from 261 underwater point-counts and resulting in fish density of 0.38/1000 m2 (Mann et al. 2006). In French Polynesia, a total of four individuals were counted in various UVC survey with body sizes of 709 cm TL (M. Kulbicki pers. comm. 2008). While in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, O. bimaculatus was one of the top 35 most abundant fish species, with a mean abundance of 0.27 at each site (Parrish and Boland 2004). The underwater visual census in Okinawa seagrass beds also reported relatively high density of O. bimaculatus among all fishes recorded (Nakamura and Tsuchiya 2008).
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits clear lagoon and seaward reefs, over rubble or sand, also found in seagrass beds, from two to 110 m (Lieske and Myers 1994, Allen 2000, Sadovy and Cornish 2000). There is no information on the reproductive biology or ecology on this species.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is utilized as both food fish and aquarium fish (Gell and Whittington 2002, Mulochau and Durville 2005, Shao 2005). However, there is no information on the level of harvest on this species and an unknown proportion of this species is involved in the international aquarium fish trade.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats known for this species, atlhough it is utilized as both food fish and aquarium fish (Gell and Whittington 2002, Mulochau and Durville 2005, Shao 2005).|
There are no species-specific conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas within its range. Individuals of this species have been recorded in several marine protected areas. However, details of their recent status is often lacking in many other countries. There are very few fishery management measures relevant to this species, and monitoring on its international trade is absent.
Labrids are not major catches in the reef fishes surrounding the south-west Madagascar in 1997 (Laroche et al. 1997), but catch-per-unit-effort is still relatively high in these fishing grounds. There are two marine protected areas, with no-take zones, located in the northwest region of Madagascar (McKenna and Allen 2005). This species was occasionally sighted during a rapid biodiversity survey in northwest Madagascar, and is likely protected within the protected areas (McKenna and Allen 2005).
Marine parks are established within Queensland. Marine parks are zoned for different purposes and offer different levels of protection from recreational and commercial fishing activities (Environmental Protection Agency 2008). For fishery management, a minimum size of 250 mm TL and a bag limit of five fish apply to all wrasses (Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries 2008a). There are three, nine-day closure to the taking of all coral reef fishes in Queensland east coast waters, which are in October, November and December each year around the new moon phase (Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries 2008b). There is no specific management measure or regulation on this species in commercial food fish fishery.
There is no fishery management or regulations on this species in Taiwan. O. bimaculatus occurs within the Kenting National Park (Shao 2005). Its recorded occurrence in Tung Sha Tao (Pratas Island), which is now a protected area, offer protection to this species (Chen et al. 1995). This species is used in aquarium trade but quantitative data on its catcher are absent (Shao 2005). There is no information on the aquarium fish trade.
Adam, M.S. 2006. Country review: Maldives. In: C. De Young (ed.), Review of the State of World Marine Capture Fisheries Management: Indian Ocean, pp. 383-391. FAO, Rome.
Allen, G.R. 2000. Marine fishes of south-east Asia – A field guide for anglers and divers. Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd.
Chen, J.-P., Shao, K.-T. and Lin, C.-P. 1995. A checklist of reef fishes from the Tungsha Tao (Pratas Island), South China Sea. Acta Zoologica Taiwanica 6(2): 13-40.
Conservation International. 2008. Funds Awarded to Samoa’s Largest Marine Protected Areas. Available at: http://www.conservation.org/newsroom/pressreleases/Pages/funds-awarded-to-samoas-largest-marine.aspx.
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. 2008. New Marine Protected Area will Bring Much-Needed Protection. Available at: http://www.environment.gov.za//NewsMedia/MedStat/2008Oct13_2/13102008_2.pdf. (Accessed: 21 October).
Department of Environment and Resource Management. 2008. Marine Parks. Available at: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/parks_and_forests/marine_parks/. (Accessed: 14 October).
De Young, C. 2006. Review of the State of World Marine Capture Fisheries Management: Indian Ocean. FAO, Rome.
Dufour, V. 1997. Pacific Island countries and the aquarium fish market. SPC Fisheries Newsletter 80/81.
Edwards, A.J. and Shepherd, A.D. 1992. Environmental implications of aquarium-fish collection in the Maldives, with proposals for regulation. Environmental Conservation 19: 61-72.
Flewwelling, P. and Hosch, G. 2007a. Indonesia. In: C. De Young. (ed.), Review of the State of World Marine Capture Fisheries Management: Pacific Ocean. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 488/1, pp. 539-554. FAO, Rome.
Francis, J., Nilsson, A. and Waruinge, D. 2002. Marine protected areas in the Eastern African region: how successful are they? Ambio 31(7-8): 503 – 511.
Friedlander, A.M. and DeMartini, E.E. 2002. Contrasts in density, size, and biomass of reef fishes between the northwestern and the main Hawaiian islands: the effects of fishing down apex predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series 230: 253-264.
Friedlander, A.M., Brown, E.K., Jokiel, P.L., Smith, W.R. and Rodgers, K.S. 2003. Effects of habitat, wave exposure, and marine protected area status on coral reef fish assemblages in the Hawaiian archipelago. Coral Reefs 22: 291-305.
Gell, F.R. and Whittington, M.W. 2002. Diversity of fishes in seagrass beds in the Quirimba Archipelago, northern Mozambique. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 115-121.
Gilman, E. 2007. United States of America (Western and Central Pacific Ocean). In: C. De Young (ed.), Review of the State of World Marine Capture Fisheries Management: Pacific Ocean. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 488/1, pp. 299-328. FAO, Rome.
Gladstone, W. 2000. The ecological and social basis for management of a Red Sea marine-protected area. Ocean & Coastal Management 43: 1015-1032.
Golbuu, Y., Bauman, A., Kuartei, J. and Victor, S. 2005. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Republic of Palau. In: J.E. Waddell (ed.), The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States:2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team, Silver Spring, MD.
Haribon Foundation. 2002. A study on Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines. Available at: http://www.haribon.org.ph/?q=node/view/139.
Hawai’i Coral Reef Network. 2002. Marine Protected Areas in Hawai’i. Available at: http://www.coralreefnetwork.com/mpa/hawaii_mpas.htm. (Accessed: 23. Oct).
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Kolm, N. and Berglund, A. 2003. Wild populations of a reef fish suffer from the “nondestructive” aquarium trade fishery. Conservation Biology 17(3): 910-914.
Laroche, J., Razanoelisoa, J., Fauroux, E. and Rabenevanana, M.W. 1997. The reef fisheries surrounding the south-west coastal cities of Madagascar. Fisheries Management and Ecology 4: 285-299.
Lieske, E and Myers, R.F. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, USA.
Mann, B.Q., Celliers, L., Fennessy, S.T., Bailey, S. and Wood, A.D. 2006. Towards the declaration of a large marine protected area: a subtidal ichthyofaunal survey of the Pondoland coast in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 28: 535-551.
McClanahan, T.R. and Arthur, R. 2001. The effect of marine reserves and habitat on populations of East Africa coral reef fishes. Ecological Applications 11(2): 559-569.
McKenna, S.A. and Allen, G.R. 2005. A rapid marine biodiversity assessment of the Coral Reefs. Conservation International, Washington, D.C.
Ministry of Housing, Housing and Environment. 2003. Marine Protected Areas of the Maldives. Available at: http://www.environment.gov.mv/protected-areas.htm. (Accessed: 22. October).
Moffitt, R.B., Kobayashi, D.R. and DiNardo, G.T. 2006. Status of the Hawaiian Bottomfish Stocks, 2004. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. NOAA, Honolulu.
Motta, H., Pereira, M.A.M., Gonçalves, M., Ridgway, T. and Schleyer, M.H. 2002. Coral Reef Monitoring in Mozambique. II: 2000 Report. MICOA/CORDIO/ORI/WWF. Mozambique Coral Reef Management Programme, Maputo, Mozambique.
Mulochau, T. and Durville, P. 2005. A review of the movements of fish held in captivity in the Reunion Island Aquarium over a five-year period. SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin: 13-18.
Nakamura, Y. and Tsuchiya, M. 2008. Spatial and temporal patterns of seagrass habitat use by fishes at the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 76: 345-356.
Parrish, F.A. and Boland, R.C. 2004. Habitat and reef-fish assemblages of banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Marine Biology 144: 1065-1073.
Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. 2008a. Bag and size limits – tidal waters. Available at: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/dpi/hs.xsl/28_3042_ENA_HTML.htm. (Accessed: 13.10).
Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. 2008b. Closed seasons – tidal waters. Available at: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/dpi/hs.xsl/28_3055_ENA_HTML.htm. (Accessed: 13.10).
Rubec, P.J., Cruz, F., Pratt, V., Oellers, R., McCullough, R.B. and Lallo, F. 2001. Cyanide-free net-caught fish for the marine aquarium trade. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 3(1-3): 37-51.
Russ, G.R. and Alcala, A.C. 1998. Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983-1993: community and trophic responses. Coral Reefs 17(4): 383-397.
Ryan, S. and Clarke, K. 2005. Ecological assessment of the Queensland marine aquarium fish fishery. A report to the Australian Government Department of Environment and Heritage on the ecologically sustainable management of the Queensland marine aquarium harvest fishery.
Sadovy, Y. and Cornish, A.S. 2000. Reef fishes of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2007b. Samoa – Overview. Available at: http://www.cbd.int/countries/?country=ws. (Accessed: 21 October).
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2007. Tonga – Overview. Available at: http://www.cbd.int/countries/?country=to. (Accessed: 21st Oct).
Secretariat of the Pacific Community and Bureau of Marine Resources. 2007. Palau Domestic Fishing Laws. 48. Available at: http://www.spc.int/coastfish/Countries/palau/PalauDomestic2007.pdf.
Seychelles Fishing Authority. 2009. Fisheries Management. Available at: http://www.sfa.sc/Fisheries%20management.htm. (Accessed: 8 Oct).
Shao, K.T. 2005. Taiwan Fish Database. Available at: http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw/2001new/main1.asp. (Accessed: 17th October).
Shuman, C.S., Hodgson, G. and Ambrose, R. 2005. Population impacts of collecting sea anemones and anemonefish for the marine aquarium trade in the Philippines. Coral Reefs 24(4): 564-573.
Singh, H.S. 2003. Marine protected areas in India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 32: 226-233.
SouthAfrica.info. 2008. SA’s 20th Marine Protected Area. Available at: http://www.southafrica.info/about/sustainable/stilbaai-141008.htm. (Accessed: 21.October).
The Nature Conservancy. 2008. Conservancy Envisions Marine Protected Areas for People and Nature In Kimbe Bay. Available at: http://www.nature.org/success/art19235.html. (Accessed: 21.Oct).
The Phoenix Islands Protected Area. 2007. Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA). Available at: http://www.phoenixislands.org/species.html. (Accessed: 21.Oct).
Tissot, B. and Hallacher, L. 2003. Effects of aquarium collectors on coral reef fishes in Kona, Hawaii. Conservation Biology 17(6): 1759-1768.
UNEP-WCMC. 2008. The Okinawa Kaigan Marine Park. Available at: http://www.wdpa.org/siteSheet.aspx?sitecode=71155. (Accessed: 17.Oct).
USCRTF Trade Subgroup of the International Working Group. 1999. International Trade in Coral and Coral Reef Species. International Working Group Draft Report. United States Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF).
Wantiez, L., Thollot, P. and Kulbicki, M. 1997. Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia. Coral Reefs 16: 215-224.
Wells, S., Burgess, N. and Ngusaru, A. 2007. Towards the 2012 marine protected area targets in Eastern Africa. Ocean and Coastal Management 50: 67-83.
Wood, E. 2001. Collection of coral reef fish for aquaria: global trade, conservation issues and management strategies. Marine Conservation Society, Ross-on-Wye, U.K.
World Wildlife Fund (WWF). 2004. South Africa Recognized for its Four New Marine Protected Area. Available at: http://www.panda.org/news_facts/newsroom/news/index.cfm?uNewsID=14352. (Accessed: 21.October).
World Wildlife Fund (WWF). 2006. Tabu Waters: Protecting Fiji’s Great Sea Reef. Available at: http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/marine/news/stories/index.cfm?uNewsID=55580. (Accessed: 21.Oct).
|Citation:||To, A., Liu, M., Rocha, L. & Craig, M. 2010. Oxycheilinus bimaculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 March 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|