|Scientific Name:||Pteromys volans|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Shar, S., Lkhagvasuren, D., Henttonen, H., Maran, T. & Hanski, I.|
|Reviewer/s:||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern, although this species is experiencing declines in some parts of its range, they are not at a rate close to 30% over three generations throughout its range. Overall it is very widespread and hence it is currently considered to be Least Concern.
|Range Description:||The Siberian flying squirrel has a wide range in the northern Palaearctic, extending from Finland, Estonia and Latvia eastwards through Russia, Mongolia, northwest China to the Pacific coast (Panteleyev 1998, Sulkava 1999) including the Korean Peninsula and northeast China. It also occurs on the Pacific islands of Sakhalin (Russia) and Hokkaido (Japan). It occurs from sea level up to the tree line (H. Henttonen pers. comm. 2006), and in northern China it occurs up to 2,500 m asl (Smith and Xie, in press). In Mongolia it occurs in forest habitats including the Hövsgöl, Hangai and Hentii mountain ranges, and the western parts of the Mongol Altai Mountain Range.|
Native:China; Estonia; Finland; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Latvia; Mongolia; Russian Federation
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The species continues to decline in many parts of its range owing to loss of old-growth mixed forests. In Finland, it is still locally quite common but declining everywhere, with detailed local studies showing 20-58% declines over periods of 10-20 years (Hanski et al. 2001, Hanski 2006). Declines were noted in all parts of Finland; there were no areas where the population was stable or increasing, and declines are predicted to continue in the future (Hanski 2006). A three year census ending in 2005 estimated the Finnish population at 140,000 females (95% confidence limits 134,800-151,300: Hanski 2006). It has been found at c.50 sites in Estonia (T. Maran pers. comm. 2006). In Russia, it is considered widespread but rare in Karelia, and in the Karelian isthmus its status is similar to that of the Finnish population (A. Tikhonov in litt. 2006). It is considered to be somewhat more common in the St Petersburg area. It is common on Hokkaido in Japan.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It prefers mature spruce-dominated forests with a significant proportion of deciduous trees, especially aspen Populus tremula, birch Betula sp. and alder Alnus sp. (Reunanen et al. 2000, 2002). Large deciduous trees are an important source of both food and nest-sites: the flying squirrel feeds primarily on alder and birch catkins in the winter and alder leaves in the summer, and nests in old woodpecker holes or natural cavities in decaying wood. They are nocturnal and do not hibernate. They are found from lowlands to montane regions (Abe, et al., 2005).|
Modern intensive forestry and logging are the major threats to this species (Hanski et al. 2001). Large tracts of mature boreal forest have been felled and replaced by a managed forest landscape that is a mosaic of semi-natural forest, young saplings, and clear-cut patches. Fragmentation of forests is a particular problem for this species, as flying squirrels are reluctant to cross open areas on the ground. Managed forests also tend to have fewer deciduous trees (which are an essential winter food source), less decaying wood and fewer tree-holes (which are needed for nest-sites). In parts of Russia, it has been estimated that up to 50% of logging is illegal (Kotlobay and Ptichnikov 2002). Illegal logging is particularly destructive, as unsustainable practices such as high-grading or 'skimming' are used, meaning that for every ten trees felled only one or two high-quality logs will be used (Kotlobay and Ptichnikov 2002). The species is also hunted for commercial use of its fur, but this is not considered a major threat at present (Nowak 1991).
In Mongolia, habitat loss caused by selective logging, human-caused fires and natural wildfires in some parts of its range are a threat.
It is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention, and on Annex II* and Annex IV of the EU Habitats and Species Directive, in parts of its range where these apply. It is considered Vulnerable at the national level in Finland (Rassi et al. 2001). The Finnish Ministry of Forestry and Agriculture and Ministry of the Environment have published detailed guidelines on how to deal with flying squirrels in forestry. Specific recommendations include protecting known feeding and nesting sites (usually this means that trees surrounding nesting tree will be protected within 30 m, and "corridors" will be saved so that nesting sites are not isolated) (Anon. 2002, 2003, H. Henttonen pers. comm. 2006). It occurs in a number of protected areas.
It is listed on the Chinese Red List as Vulnerable A1cd.
Abe, H., Ishii, N., Ito, T., Kaneko, Y., Maeda, K., Miura, S. and Yoneda, M. 2005. A Guide to the Mammals of Japan. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, Japan.
Anonymous. 2002. Liito-oravatyöryhmän 2002 raportti. Työryhmämuistio MMM.
Anonymous. 2003. Liito-oravan Lisääntymis - ja Levähdyspaikkojen Määrittäminen ja Turvaaminen Metsien Käytössä. Miljöministeriet (Ministry of the Environment) MMM Dnro 3713/430/2003.
Hanski, I. K. 2006. Liito-oravan Pteromys volans Suomen kannan koon arviointi. Loppuraportti [Assessment of the Size of the Siberian Flying Squirrel Pteromys volans Population in Finland]. Final Report. Helsinki, Finland.
Hanski, I. K., Henttonen, H., Liukko, U.-M., Meriluoto, M. and Mäkelä, A. 2001. Liito-oravan (Pteromys volans) biologia ja suojelu Suomessa [The biology and conservation of the flying squirrel in Finland]. Suomen Ympäristö [Reports of the Ministry of Environment] 459: 1-130.
Hokkanen, H., Tormala, T. and Vuorinen, H. 1982. Decline of the flying squirrel Pteromys volans. l. populations in Finland. Biological Conservation 23: 273-284.
Kotlobay, A. and Ptichnikov, A. 2002. Illegal Logging in the Southern Part of the Russian Far East: Problem Analysis and Proposed Solutions. WWF, Moscow, Russia.
Mitchell-Jones, A. J., Amori, G., Bogdanowicz, W., Kryštufek, B., Reijnders, P. J. H., Spitzenberger, F., Stubbe, M., Thissen, J. B. M., Vohralik, V. and Zima, J. 1999. The Atlas of European Mammals. Academic Press, London, UK.
Nowak R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.
Panteleyev, P. A. 1998. The Rodents of the Palaearctic Composition and Areas. Pensoft, Moscow, Russia.
Rassi, P., Alanen, A., Kanerva, T. and Mannerkoski, I. 2001. The Red List of Finnish Species (English Summary). Ministry of the Environment & Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki.
Reunanen, P., Monkkonen, M. and Nikula, A. 2000. Managing boreal forest landscapes for flying squirrels. Conservation Biology 14: 218-226.
Reunanen, P., Mönkkönen, M. and Nikula, A. 2002. Habitat requirements of the Siberian flying squirrel in northern Finland: comparing field survey and remote sensing data. Annales Zoologici Fennici 39: 7-20.
Smith, A. and Xie, Y. 2008. The Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Sulkava, S. 1999. Pteromys volans. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, Academic Press, London, UK.
Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. 1993. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Shar, S., Lkhagvasuren, D., Henttonen, H., Maran, T. & Hanski, I. 2008. Pteromys volans. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 April 2014.|
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