|Scientific Name:||Paralabrax clathratus|
|Species Authority:||(Girard, 1854)|
Labrax clathratus Girard, 1854
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Iwamoto, T., Smith-Vaniz, B. & Robertson, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is restricted to California and Mexico. It has historically been overfished, and may still be negatively affected by fishing activities in the southern portion of its range. However, populations in California appear to be stable given the closure of the commerical fishery and implementation of catch size limits in recreational fisheries. Furthermore, this species is expected to recover with the implementation of a system of effective no-take Marine Protected Areas in Southern California. It is listed as Least Concern. However, this species should continue to be carefully monitored given the current small average size compared to historical records.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from central California to the tip of Baja California. This species has historically ranged as far north as the Columbia River, Oregon. However, it is now considered rare north of Point Conception, California (California Fish and Game 2001).|
Native:Mexico; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information for this species.This species is considered common in southern California and northwestern Baja California.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This benthopelagic species is found in or near kelp beds to depths of 61 m (Young 1963). Juveniles feed on benthic invertebrates (especially crustaceans), and adults feed on fishes and cephalopods (Heemstra 1995). Both juveniles and adults may feed on plankton when abundant (Heemstra 1995)
This species can range throughout the water column, but can be found in the greatest numbers in shallower waters at less than 25 m depth. Mature individuals usually gather to breed in deeper water near kelp beds and rocky headlands. Several hundred adults may aggregate in a small area during spawning. Kelp Bass produce free-drifting eggs which enter the plankton in coastal waters. Larvae remain in the plankton for 28 to 30 days, after which they settle into shallow water habitats that have attached algae and drift algae, including kelp. They mature at three to five years, and the oldest known kelp bass was 34 years old and 63 cm long (California Fish and Game 2004). However, current average body sizes are smaller than historical records.
|Use and Trade:||This species is an excellent food fish and an important game fish. It is a commercially important species in Mexico (Heemstra, 1995).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species has been negatively impacted by past commercial and current sport fishing. In the 1970s and 1980s, this species was among the top three species taken in sport (angler) fisheries. The Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey (MRFSS) catch estimates show trends in declining catches through most of the 1990s with a low in 1999, and with landings rebounding in 2000 and 2001 (California Fish and Game 2004). In general, peak landings of Kelp Bass have followed El Niño events. Surveys in the 1970s and 1980s indicated that a stable spawning population was being maintained, because a large number of age-classes were being caught by anglers (California Fish and Game 2004).|
|Conservation Actions:||Commercial fishing of this species has been prohibited in California since the 1950s. In addition, size limits of 12 inches minimum size apply for sport fishing with a bag limit of 10 Paralabrax spp. This species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in southern California currently being developed that will offer greatly enhanced protection.|
California Department of Fish and Game. 2001. California's Marine Living Resources: A Status Report.
California Department of Fish and Game. 2004. Annual Status of the Fisheries Report through 2003. California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Region.
CONAMP. 2007. Comisión Nacional de Áreas Protegidas de México (National Commission of Protected Areas of Mexico). Available at: http://www.conanp.gob.mx/.
Froese, R., Palomares, M. and Pauly, D. 2002. Estimation of life history key facts of fishes. Available at: www.fishbase.org.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
IUCN and UNEP. 2014. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK Available at: www.wdpa.org .
Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.
Young, P. 1963. The kelp bass (Paralabrax clathrus) and its fishery 1947-1958. Fish Bulletin 122: 67.
|Citation:||Iwamoto, T., Smith-Vaniz, B. & Robertson, R. 2010. Paralabrax clathratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2014.|
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