|Scientific Name:||Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos|
|Species Authority:||(Tschudi, 1846)|
Plectropoma macrophthalmos Tschudi, 1846
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Smith-Vaniz,B., Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina H., Salas, E., Guzman-Mora, A.G., Merlen, G., Allen, G., Edgar, G. & Rivera, F.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is endemic to Ecuador, Peru and Chile. There have been observed localized declines of up to 75% in some parts of its range, such as in the Galápagos. However, it is not known if these declines are occuring throughout its range due to reduction of prey (anchoveta), overfishing, or the increase in frequency and duration of El Niño events. More research is needed to determine this species' population status and the effect of suspected major threats. It is listed as Data Deficient.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from Ecuador to Chile, including the Galápagos islands.|
Native:Chile; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information available for this species. This species is occasionally seen in fish markets in Peru and Ecudaor. However, the numbers sighted in markets appears to be declining substantially, and the population has also likely been affected by a decline in prey (anchoveta) in Peru. Between 1998 and 2001, the catches in Galápagos have declined by approximately 75%, while in Ecuador, they have declined by more than 50% between 1992 and 2007 (Merlen pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This pelagic reef-associated species is found in rocky substrata from 10-55 m, and in rocky and coral reefs. It feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Grove and Lavenberg 1997).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is a component of subsistence fisheries. It is targeted by artisan fisheries in Galápagos, southern Ecuador and Peru.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species does not have major commercial importance, but it supports subsistence fisheries. It is targeted by artisan fisheries in Galápagos, southern Ecuador and Peru. However, harvest levels and effects on population trends is unknown. It is not known if declines observed in Ecuador and in markets in Peru are due to decreased achoveta prey availability (Jarre-Teichmann 1998), associated El Niño events (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004, Edgar et al. 2009), or overharvesting.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region.However, not all Marine Protected Areas are considered to mediate major threats to the ecosystems and many tropical eastern Pacific endemics are found in habitats that are not currently protected within Marine Protected Areas.|
Chen, D., Cane, M.A., Kaplan, A., Zebiak, S.E and Huang, D. 2004. Predictability of El Niño over the past 148 years. Nature 428: 733-736.
CMAR -Conservation International. 2006. Corredor Marino de Conservación del Pacifico Este Tropical. Documento Informativo. Secretaría Técnica Pro-Tempore del CMAR.
Dominici-Arosemena, A. and Wolff, M. 2006. Reef fish community structure in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panamá): living on a relatively stable rocky reef environment. Helgoland Marine Research 60: 287-305.
Edgar, G.J., Banks, S.A., Brandt, M., Bustamante, R.H., Chiriboga, A., Earle, S.A., Garske, L.E., Glynn, P.W., Grove, J.S., Henderson, S., Hickman, C.P., Miller, K.A., Rivera, F. and Wellington, G.M. 2009. El Niño, grazers and fisheries interact to greatly elevate extinction risk for Galapagos marine species. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02117.x.
Glynn, P.W. and Ault, J.S. 2000. A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region. Coral Reefs 19: 1-23.
Grove, J.S. and Lavenberg, R.J. 1997. The fishes of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
IUCN and UNEP. 2014. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK Available at: www.wdpa.org .
Jarre-Teichmann, A. 1998. The potential role of mass balance models for the management of upwelling ecosystems. Ecological Applications 8: S93-S103.
Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.
Soto, C.G. 2001. The potential impacts of global climate change on marine protected areas. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11(3): 181-195.
|Citation:||Smith-Vaniz,B., Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina H., Salas, E., Guzman-Mora, A.G., Merlen, G., Allen, G., Edgar, G. & Rivera, F. 2010. Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 March 2015.|