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Procapra gutturosa

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CETARTIODACTYLA BOVIDAE

Scientific Name: Procapra gutturosa
Species Authority: (Pallas, 1777)
Common Name(s):
English Mongolian Gazelle, Dzeren
French Gazelle De La Mongolie
Spanish Gacela De Mongolia

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Mallon, D.P.
Reviewer(s): Plowman, A. & Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority)
Justification:
Population estimates over the last 10 years have ranged from 400,000 to 2,700,000. The taxon is subject to population fluctuations due to disease and effects of severe winter conditions. Illegal hunting is heavy, in addition to the legal annual harvest. However, several recent authorities agree on a figure of approximately 1,000,000 and the range is expanding towards the north-west. Annual monitoring of the status of this species is required as an upsurge in illegal hunting in conjunction with adverse climatic conditions or outbreak of disease could result in a sharp fall qualifying for a classification of Near Threatened or Vulnerable.
History:
2003 Least Concern (IUCN 2003)
2003 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Occurs in eastern Mongolia and adjacent areas of Russia and north-eastern China. Smaller populations are still found in central and western Mongolia. There is a translocated population on Homin Tal steppe in Zavkhan Province of west-central Mongolia.
Countries:
Native:
China; Mongolia; Russian Federation
Regionally extinct:
Kazakhstan
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population estimates over the last 10 years have ranged from 400,000 to 2,700,000. The taxon is subject to population fluctuations due to disease and effects of severe winter conditions. Illegal hunting is heavy, in addition to the legal annual harvest. However, several recent authorities agree on a figure of approximately 1,000,000 in Mongolia, though some experts still believe this figure is much too high. Most of the current population is found in the eastern Mongolian steppes. Smaller populations are found in central and western Mongolia. Some move south into China in winter where up to 250,000 may occur. Around 80,000 are estimated to live year-round in China.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Inhabits rolling arid steppes and plains. Mongolian gazelle move constantly over their range, except during the rutting and birthing seasons.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Illegal hunting (in addition to the legal harvest) is an increasing threat. The species is harvested for meat and hides. Former tight control in Mongolia has weakened during the last decade and tens of thousands are killed illegally on top of the official harvest.

The Ulaanbaatar-Beijing railway is double-fenced and has effectively cut off the smaller populations from the core population in eastern Mongolia. Outbreaks of disease and severe winters result in sporadic heavy mortality.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Occurs in some protected areas in Mongolia but most of the population occurs outside these. Given some legal protection in Mongolia and China, but enforcement is not fully effective. Currently proposed for inclusion on the appendices of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS).

Bibliography [top]

Jiang, Z. and Wang, S. 2001. China. In: D. P. Mallon and S. C. Kingswood (eds), Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Lhagvasuren, B. and Milner-Gulland, E. J. 1997. The status and management of the Mongolian gazelle Procapra gutturosa population. Oryx 31: 127-134.

Lhagvasuren, B., Dulamtseren, S. and Amgalan, L. 2001. Mongolia. In: D. P. Mallon and S. C. Kingswood (eds), Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, pp. 159-167. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Mallon, D. P. and Kingswood, S. C. 2001. Chapter 41. Regional Action Plan for Antelope Conservation. In: D. P. Mallon and S. C. Kingswood (eds), Anteloepes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, pp. 231-243. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Mallon, D. P. and Kingswood, S. C. 2001. Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Milner-Gulland, E. J. and Lhagvasuren, B. 1998. Population Dynamics of the Mongolian Gazelle Procapra gutturosa: A Historical Analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 240-251.

Schaller, G. B. and Lkhagvasuren, B. 1998. A Disease Outbreak in Mongolian Gazelles. Gnusletter 17: 18.

Sokolov, V. E. and Lushchekina, A. A. 1997. Procapra gutturosa. Mammalian Species 571: 1-5.

Takehiko, Y., Ito, N. M., Lkhagvasuren, B., Enkhbileg, D., Takatsuki, S., Tsunekawa, A. and Jiang, Z. 2005. Preliminary Evidence of a Barrier Effect of a Railroad on the Migration of Mongolian Gazelles. Conservation Biology 19(3): 945-948.

Tsagaan, S. 1980. Distribution, Migration, Herd Structure and Numbers of the Mongolian Gazelle. Publishing House of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.


Citation: Mallon, D.P. 2008. Procapra gutturosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2014.
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