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Procapra picticaudata 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Procapra picticaudata
Species Authority: Hodgson, 1846
Common Name(s):
English Tibetan Gazelle, Goa
French Gazelle Du Tibet
Spanish Gecela Del Tibet
Taxonomic Notes: Tibetan Gazelle is a monotypic species without subspecies based on morphology.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-07-05
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Cooke, R.
Contributor(s): Mallon, D. & Bhatnagar, Y.V.
Justification:
The overall rate of decline is inferred to have reached around 20% over the last three generations (12 years) and is therefore close to meeting the threshold for Vulnerable under criterion A2d. This decline is due to illegal hunting, growing competition with domestic livestock, change sin land-use and government policy of fencing rangelands (all factors that have increased over the past five years).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This gazelle occurs across virtually the whole Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (China), extending a small distance into two adjoining areas of India (Ladakh, Sikkim). Over 99% of its range lies in China (Jiang and Wang 2001).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
China (Qinghai, Tibet [or Xizang], Xinjiang); India (Jammu-Kashmir, Sikkim)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):5750
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Schaller (1998) suggested that the total population in China on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau may be around 100,000, but noted that numbers could not be estimated with any degree of accuracy. As few as 50 individuals live in India in the Ladakh region and seasonally enter into Sikkim (Bhatnagar, Wangchuk et al. 2006).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:100000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is one of the most geographically widespread ungulates on the Tibetan Plateau. It inhabits high-altitude plains, hills, wetland margins, and stony plateaux; up to at least 5,750 animals (Smith and Xie 2008). They prefer open high-elevation alpine meadows and alpine steppe and avoid desert steppe. It lives singly or in small groups of 3 to 20 animals, gathering in larger herds during migrations to higher summer pastures (Smith and Xie 2008).
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):4.1

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Tibetan Gazelle are hunted for their meat, hides and fur, and heads/horns are occasionally seen for sale.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss through development of rangeland and increases in domestic livestock (particularly Tibetan domestic sheep, Ovis aries, Li et al. 2008), are probably the principal threats. As human populations grow and living standards improve, the livestock stocking rate increases on Tibetan meadows and steppes (Zhao and Zhou 1999). This in turn leads to increasing pasture fencing, which restricts movement and access to forage and is systematically excluding Tibetan Gazelles from parts of their former range, especially in the east. Road building has also opened previously remote areas to grazing and (illegal) hunting. The much smaller Indian population also has been severely reduced mainly through past hunting followed by increased competition with livestock (Bhatnagar, Namgail et al. 2006, Bhatnagar, Wangchuk et al. 2006, Namgail et al. 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Occurs in Chang Tang N.R. (30,000,000 ha), Kekexili R. (4,500,000 ha), Arjin Shan R. (4,500,000 ha), Qomolangma N.N.P. (3,000,000 ha), and Sanjiangyuan R. (15,000,000 ha), China. Classified as a category II species under the Wild Animal Protection Law in China and Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.

Classifications [top]

4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

Bhatnagar, Y.V., Namgail, T., Bagchi, S. and Mishra, C. 2006. Conserving the Tibetan gazelle. Nature Conservation Foundation and International Snow Leopard Trust, Mysore, India.

Bhatnagar, Y.V., Wangchuk, R. and Mishra, C. 2006. Decline of the Tibetan gazelle in Ladakh, India. Oryx 40: 229-232.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Jiang, Z. and Wang, S. 2001. China. In: D. P. Mallon and S. C. Kingswood (eds), Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Li, Z., Jiang, Z. and Li, C. 2008. Dietary Overlap of Przewalski’s Gazelle, Tibetan Gazelle, and Tibetan Sheep on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(4): 944-948.

Namgail, T., Bagchi, S., Mishra, C. and Bhatnagar, Y.V. 2008. Distributional correlates of the Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata in Ladakh, northern India: towards a recovery programme. Oryx 42(107-112).

Schaller, G.B. 1998. Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Smith, A.T. and Xie, Y. 2008. A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Zhao, X. and Zhou, X. 1999. Ecological basis of alpine meadow ecosystem management in Tibet: Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station. Ambio 28: 642-647.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Procapra picticaudata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T18231A50192968. . Downloaded on 09 December 2016.
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