Presbytis melalophos 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Presbytis melalophos
Species Authority: (Raffles, 1821)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Sumatran Surili, Mitred Leaf Monkey
French Semnopithèque Mélalophe
Spanish Langur De Cresta
Presbytis aurata (Muller & Schlegel, 1861)
Presbytis batuanus Miller, 1903
Presbytis ferrugineus (Schlegel, 1876)
Presbytis flavimanus (I. Geoffroy, 1831)
Presbytis fluviatilis (Chasen, 1940)
Presbytis fusco-murina Elliot, 1906
Presbytis margae Hooijer, 1948
Presbytis nobilis (Gray, 1842)
Taxonomic Notes: Due to a great diversity in pelage coloration, this species has been the subject of much taxonomic debate (Aimi and Bakar 1992). This species formerly included P. chrysomelas, P. femoralis, P. natunae and P. siamensis as subspecies, all of which are here regarded as distinct species in their own right (the four species are nevertheless quite closely related). There are four presently recognized subspecies: P. m. melalophos, P. m. sumatrana, P. m. mitrata and P. m. bicolor (Aimi and Bakar 1992). However, some of the included subspecies might be better regarded as distinct species (C. Groves pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Nijman, V. & Manullang, B.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
The species is considered Endangered due to ongoing population declines driven by habitat conversion and illegal collecting for the pet trade. Although forest loss has probably exceeded 70% over 3 generations (30 years approximately), the subspecies is tolerant to some degree of conversion such that it is likely to persist in fragmented landscapes over the medium term.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Sumatra (Indonesia), where it is found south of the Wampu and Simpang Kiri Rivers (except for the eastern coastal forests), and on Pulau Pini in the Batu Archipelago (Groves 2001).

Presbytis melalophos melalophos
Found in southwestern Sumatra, from the upper Sungai Rokan south to the upper Sungai Hari and beyond along the Barisan Range into Lampung (Groves 2001).

Presbytis melalophos mitrata
Found in southeastern Sumatra, from Lampung north to the upper Musi River drainage, west of Palembang, and north to the Batang Hari River (Groves 2001).

Presbytis melalophos bicolor
Found in west-central Sumatra, in the highlands from the middle and lower Sungai Hari to the middle Sungai Inderagiri (Groves 2001).

Presbytis melalophos sumatrana
Found in western Sumatra and Pulau Pini in the Batu Archipelago. On the Sumatran mainland found in the northern highlands and west coast south of the Sungai Simpang Kiri north of Gunung Talamau, southeast to the Rokan River, and on the east coast from Sungai Wampu to the Sungai Barumun.
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Sumatera)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is relatively common (Aimi and Bakar 1992) in its remaining and appropriate habitat, but its occurrence is very patchy and fragmented.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species is tolerant of habitat conversion to a degree (V. Nijman pers. comm.), and can be found in disturbed and secondary forest areas. It has also been found in primary and secondary hill rainforest, shrub forest and plantations. This species is primarily folivorous, but will also consume fruits, flowers, and seeds. Its home range has been observed to be 14-29.5 ha and its daily distance moved is about 300-1,360 m.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There has been extensive loss of habitat, especially for oil palm plantations, and this is a serious threat. However, the species has some tolerance to forest conversion. Trapping of the species for the illegal pet trade is a threat across their range, with some incidental hunting for food. Forest fragmentation is a long-term consideration for population persistence (Manullang pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II, and is protected by national law. It is known to occur in five protected areas: Berbak National Park, Bukit Barisan National Park, Bukit Sebelah Protection Forest, Kerinci-Seblat National Park, Way Kambas National Park (Indonesia).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Aimi, M. and Bakar, A. 1992. Taxonomy and distribution of Presbytis melalophos group in Sumatera, Indonesia. Primates 33(2): 191-206.

Aimi, M. and Bakar, A. 1996. Distribution and deployment of Presbytis melalophos group in Sumatera, Indonesia. Primates 37(4): 399-409.

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Citation: Nijman, V. & Manullang, B. 2008. Presbytis melalophos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T18129A7666452. . Downloaded on 20 February 2017.
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