|Scientific Name:||Actinopyga spinea|
|Species Authority:||Cherbonnier, 1980|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Conand, C., Gamboa, R. & Purcell, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B., Harwell, H., Carpenter, K.E. & Knapp, L.|
This species is known from New Caledonia, the Torres Strait and the Great Barrier Reef where it is considered to be abundant in at least some areas, and is found to depths of 40 m. It is of medium value and has been strongly targeted since 2002, but there has been no evidence of widespread decline in at least the past 5 years. Therefore it is listed as Least Concern. Given the current high rate of catch and this species' relatively small range, more data are urgently needed on the fishery, as well as more information on this species' biology.
|Range Description:||This species can be found in the Western Central Pacific Region (Kinch et al. 2008), especially around New Caledonia and the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).|
Native:Australia; New Caledonia
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is considered to be abundant. Purcell et al. (2009) found it at one-third of surveyed lagoonal reef sites in New Caledonia. This species was quite common at some sites, with estimates greater than 1,500 ind*km-2 of reef there. It makes up 60-80% of the catch in the Great Barrier Reef (Purcell pers. comm. 2010). The fishery in Queensland for this species began in earnest in 2002, when catches went from less than 10 tonnes in 2001 to more than 180 tonnes (wet weight), with the CPUE showing a similar trend (QDPIF 2005).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found on coral reefs, lagoons and estuaries to at least 40 m, although it prefers muddy-sand lagoons and reef flats (Purcell et al. 2008). It seems to prefer softer sediments in which to bury. However, even when buried, the posterior end of the animals are often still evident.
No information is known on its changes of habitat requirements during the life history of the species, but generally, the juveniles of aspidochirotids are cryptic and small individuals may migrate into adult habitat later (Purcell 2004).
|Use and Trade:||This species is harvested throughout its distribution for use in the bêche-de-mer industry.|
This species is fished in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and New Caledonia. In the latter it is among the dominant species in the catches (Kinch et al. 2008). It is fished in high quantities, but at this time catches are not considered to be excessive and at least in one site, declines have not been more than 10% over the past 5 years (2004-2009).
Although not one of the most important species (medium value) for fishery purposes, it can be expected that this species may become more popular after the depletion or reduction of other species of higher commercial importance and value. It is caught by hand diving on hookah.
There are no known conservation measures in place for this species. It is present in at least a few marine protected areas within its range. However, more information is needed on the biology of this species as well as the fisheries it is a part of.
With the inclusion of Isostichopus fuscus in CITES Appendix III, a debate started on whether the conservation of this group may be addressed with their inclusion in one of CITES appendices. The debate started in Conference of the Parties (CoP) 12 (Santiago, Chile) and extended to CoP 14 (The Hague, Netherlands). No recent advances have been achieved on this matter. For a revision of the possible pros and cons of a CITES listing, please see Toral-Granda (2007).
Conand, C.P. 1998. Holothurians (sea cucumbers, Class Holothuroidea). In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, pp. 1157-1190. Rome.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Kinch, J., Purcell, S., Uthicke, S. and Friedman, K. 2008. Population status, fisheries and trade of sea cucumbers in the Western Central Pacific. In: V. Toral-Granda and A. Lovatelli and M. Vasconcellos. (eds), Sea cucumbers. A global review of fisheries and trade. Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 516, pp. 7-55. FAO, Rome.
Purcell, S. 2004. Criteria for release strateges and evaluating the restocking of sea cucumbers. In: A, Lovatelli (ed.), Advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and management.. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper463, Rome.
Purcell, S.W., Gossuin, H. and Agudo, N.N. 2009. Status and management of the sea cucumber fishery of la Grande Terre, New Caledonia. The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia.
QDPIF. 2005. Annual status report east coast beche-de-mer fishery, 2005. Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland Government.
Toral-Granda, V.M. 2007. The Biological and Trade Status of Sea Cucumbers in the families Holothuriidae and Stichopodidae. Convention on International Trade in Endangerd Species of Wild Fauna and Flora: 33. The Hague, Netherlands.
|Citation:||Conand, C., Gamboa, R. & Purcell, S. 2013. Actinopyga spinea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 March 2015.|
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