|Scientific Name:||Aotus miconax|
|Species Authority:||Thomas, 1927|
|Taxonomic Notes:||It is doubtful that the current taxonomy provides a true picture of the diversity of the genus Aotus. Ruiz-Herrera et al. (2005) reported that cytogenetic studies have characterized 18 different karyotypes with diploid numbers ranging from 46 to 58 chromosomes. The taxonomy of the night monkeys essentially follows the revision by Hershkovitz (1983), with some modifications for the Colombian and Central American forms.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Cornejo, F., Rylands, A.B., Mittermeier, R.A. & Heymann, E.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Vulnerable as it is inferred to have undergone a population decline of more than 30% over the last three generations (24 years) due to habitat loss (ongoing threats include mining, population growth from immigration, and development in the area).
|Range Description:||Aotus miconax is endemic to the Peruvian Andes, occurring south and east of the Río Marañón and west of the Río Huallaga (Hershkovitz 1983; Aquino and Encarnación 1994a). Butchart et al. (1995) recorded the species in the Cordillera de Colán, south of the Río Chiriaco, at altitudes from 1,730 to 2,400 m above sea level. In the south, it occurs along the left bank of the Río Huallaga in the Department of Huanaco, from the region of the Río Aguaytia (tributary of the Ucayali), north through San Martín into the Department of Amazonas, just south the Maranón (Aquino and Encarnación 1994a). This species has been recorded at elevations from 800 to 2,400 m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Little is known about the population characteristics, but they are believed to be fairly common in remaining patches of forest. Aquino and Encarnación (1994b) reviewed population structure and densities for the genus.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species occurs in humid and very humid lower montane cloud forests of eastern central Peru, where sympatric with Oreonax flavicauda (Butchart et al. 1995). Night monkeys typically occur in primary and secondary forest (including disturbed forest and selectively logged forest), seasonally flooded and terra firma, lowland forest, and submontane and montane (cloud forests) in Colombia and the Andes, above 800 m to 3,200 m above sea level (Hernández Camacho and Cooper 1976; Aquino and Encarnación 1994a; Defler 2004). Their sleeping sites include vine tangles and tree cavities like other species in the genus. This species can live in altered and secondary habitat. Aquino and Encarnación (1994b) reviewed the habitat and forest preferences of the genus.
Night monkeys are nocturnal: they are most active at dawn and dusk. The only exception is Aotus azarae azarae of the Chaco of southern Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina, which is cathemeral (active during night and day). They are frugivorous; their diet includes fruit, nectar and flower (seasonally important for the A. a. azarae in the Chaco) , leaves, and small animals prey such as insects.
They are socially monogamous, living in small groups of an adult pair and offspring of different ages (infant, one or two juveniles and sometimes a subadult. In A. a. azarae, a significant number of adults range alone. They may be subadults that have left their natal groups or older adults which have been evicted from their groups by competitors (Fernandez-Duque and Huntington 2002; Fernandez-Duque 2004). Both sexes disperse. Males care for the infants (carry them) (Rotundo et al. 2002, 2005). Lone adults were observed by Villavicencio Galindo (2003) in northern Colombia. Night monkeys are territorial—groups occupy overlapping territories of 5-18 ha (depending on the species and location) (Wright 1978; Fernandez-Duque 2007). Wright (1994) and Fernandez-Duque (2007) review the behaviour and ecology of the genus.
Captive male A. lemurinus reach sexual maturity when 2 years old, and captive female A. vociferans and A. nancymaae first breed when 3-4 years old (Dixson 1983; Fernandez-Duque 2007). In the wild, male A. azarae reach adult weight only when about 4 years old, and age at first reproduction is about 5 years of age (Juárez et al. 2003; Fernandez-Duque 2004). A female A. azaraewas found to breed for the first time at 58 months of age (Fernandez-Duque et al. 2002). Single offspring are the rule. Wright (1985) recorded births between August and February for A. nigriceps in Peru (Manu National Park), and Aquino et al. (1990) indicated a birth season between December and March for A. nancymaae in north-eastern Peru. In the Argentinean Chaco, A. azaraeshows a peak of births between March and June (Fernandez-Duque 2007).
|Major Threat(s):||Butchart et al. (1995) reported that their main threat is deforestation in their restricted range. Threats include colonisation projects, road-building (the carretera central through the cloud forests of the region and new construction throughout their distribution), selective logging, deforestation, and forest fragmentation. Recently, mining companies have been granted concessions in areas where this species occurs and these growing mining operations including open pit mining represent an increasing threat to its habitat and habitat quality. They are not hunted for food, although Butchart et al. (1995) found one being kept as a pet.|
This species occurs in several protected areas:
Abiseo National Park (274,500 ha) (Aquino and Encarnación 1994)
Cordillera de Colán (Butchart et al. 1995)
Bosque de Proteccion Alto Mayo (in range, F. Cornejo unpubl.).
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Owl monkey populations in Latin America: field work and conservation. In: J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller and I. Kakoma (eds), Aotus: The Owl Monkey, pp. 59-95. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Aquino, R., Puertas, P. E. and Encarnación, F. 1990. Supplemental notes on population parameters of northeastern Perucvian night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae). American Journal of Primatology 21: 215-221.
Butchart, S. M., Barnes, R., Davies, C. W. N., Fernandez, M. and Seddon, N. 1995. Observations of two threatened primates in the Peruvian Andes. Primate Conservation 16: 15-19.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.
Dixson, A. F. 1983. The owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). In: J. P. Hearn (ed.), Reproduction in New World Primates: new Models in Medical Sciences, pp. 69-113. International Medical Publishers, Lancaster, UK.
Fernandez-Duque, E. 2004. High levels of intrasexual competition in sexually monomorphic owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). Foliia Primatologica 75(1): 260.
Fernandez-Duque, E. 2007. Aotinae: Social monogamy in the only nocturnal haplorhines. In: C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C. Mackinnon, M. Panger and S. K. Bearder (eds), Primates in Perspective, pp. 139-154. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Fernandez-Duque, E. and Huntington, C. 2002. Disappearances of individuals from social groups have imolications for understanding natal dispersal in monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). American Journal of Primatology 57: 219-225.
Fernandez-Duque, E., Rotundo, M. and Ramírez-Llorens, P. 2002. Environmental determinants of birth seasonality in owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) of the Argentinean Chaco. International Journal of Primatology 23: 639-656.
Ford, S. M. 1994. Taxonomy and distribution of the owl monkey. In: J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller and I. Kakoma (eds), Aotus: The Owl Monkey, pp. 1–57. Alan R. Liss, New York, USA.
Giménez, M. and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2003. Summer and winter diet of night monkeys in the gallery and thorn forests of the Argentinean Chaco. Revista de Etologia 5(suppl.): 164.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary report on Aotus taxonomy. American Journal of Primatology 4: 209–243.
Juárez, C., Rotundo, M. and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2003. Behavioral sex differences in the socially monogamous night monkeys of the Argentinean Chaco. Revista de Etologia 5: 174.
Rotundo, M., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Dixson, A. F. 2005. Infant development and paretnal care in free-rannig groups of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) in Argentina. International Journal of Primatology 36(6): 1459-1473.
Rotundo, M., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Giménez, M. 2002. Cuidado biparental en el mono de noche (Aotus azarai azarai) de Formosa, Argentina. Neotropical Primates 10: 70-72.
Ruiz-Herrera, A., García, F., Aguilera, M., Garcia, M. and Fontanals, M. P. 2005. Comparative chromosome painting in Aotus reveals a highly derived evolution. American Journal of Primatology 65: 73–85.
Villavicencio Galindo, J. M. 2003. Distribución geográfica de los primates del género Aotus en el Departamento Norte de Santander, Colomiba. In: V. Pereira-Bengoa, F. Nassar-Montoya and A. Savage (eds), Primatología del Nuevo Mundo, pp. 264-271. Centro de Primatología Araguatos, Bogotá, Colombia.
Wright, P. C. 1978. Home range, activity pattern, and agonistic encounters of a group of night monkeys (Aotus trivrgatus) in Peru. Folia Primatologica 29: 43–55.
Wright, P. C. 1981. The night monkeys, genus Aotus. In: A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, pp. 211-240. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Wright, P. C. 1985. The costs and benefits of nocturnality for Aotus trivirgatus (the night monkey). Ph.D .Thesis, City University of New York.
Wright, P. C. 1989. The nocturnal primate niche in the New World. Journal of Human Evolution 18: 635-638.
Wright, P. C. 1994. The behavior and ecology of the owl monkey. In: J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller and I. Kakoma (eds), The Owl Monkey, pp. 97-112. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
|Citation:||Cornejo, F., Rylands, A.B., Mittermeier, R.A. & Heymann, E. 2008. Aotus miconax. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2014.|
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