|Scientific Name:||Lumnitzera racemosa|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer/s:||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is widespread and common.There has been an estimated 19% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. There are overall range declines in many areas due to habitat loss or extraction, but not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found in South Asia in Brunei Darussalam, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. In Australasia, it is found in Northwest Australia, Northeast Australia, and Papua New Guinea. In East Africa and the Middle East, this species is found in British Indian Ocean Territory, Kenya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania.|
Native:Australia; Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Comoros; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mayotte; Mozambique; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Seychelles; Singapore; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widespread and common throughout its range. Although there is no species specific population information, it can be assumed that there are areas of population decline throughout its range due to coastal development.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This back mangrove species is found most often in the upstream zones in the mid to high intertidal region. It can also be found along sandy beaches. It is a colonising species and grows relatively quickly, and is shade intolerant with a maximum porewater salinity of 78 ppt (Robertson and Alongi 1992).|
This species is particularly sensitive to siltation from upstream, land use changes, and erosion. Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 19% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
Sea level rise is a major threat, especially to back mangroves that have no area in which to expand. Mangrove species with a habitat on the landward margin may be particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise if owing to coastal development their movement inland is blocked. Species that occur at the landward edge, or upstream in tidal estuaries include Nypa fruticans, Heritiera littoralis, Xylocarpus granatum, Lumnitzera racemosa, Lumnitzera littorea, Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonneratia lanceolata, and Bruguiera sexangula.
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. This species is used for a number of services and is sometimes planted along dykes of ponds.|
Azuma, H., Toyota, M., Asakawa, Y., Takaso, T. and Tobe, H. 2002. Floral scent chemistry of mangrove plants. Journal of Plant Research 115(1): 47-53.
Duke, N. 2006. Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Duke, N.C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
Hughes, R.H. and Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. pp. 820. IUCN - World Conservation Union, United Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Kathiresan, K. 2008. Biodiversity of Mangrove Ecosystems. Proceedings of Mangrove Workshop. GEER Foundation, Gujarat, India.
Li, M.S. and Lee, S.Y. 1997. Mangroves of China: a brief review. Forest Ecology and Management 96: 241-259.
Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Sheppard, C. and Seaward, M.R.D. 1999. Ecology of the Chagos Archipelago. Westbury Academic and Scientific Publishing, Otley, UK.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
Terrados, J., Thampanya, U., Srichai, N., Kheowvongstri, P., Geertz-Hansen, O., Boromthanarath, S., Panapitukkul, N. and Duarte, C.M. 1997. The effect of increased sediment accretion on the survival and growth of Rhizophora apiculata seedlings. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 45: 697-701.
Wells, A.G. 1983. Distribution of mangroves species in Australia. In: H.J. Teas (ed.), Biology and Ecology of Mangroves, pp. 57-76. Dr W. Junk Publishers, Boston.
|Citation:||Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Lumnitzera racemosa. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 April 2014.|