|Scientific Name:||Bruguiera hainesii|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is morphologically similar to B. exaristata.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered C1 ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is very rare and has a limited and patchy distribution. There are approximately 200 known mature individuals remaining in Singapore, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea, and there has been at least 27% loss of mangrove area in this species range over a 25 year period (less than one generation length) due to extensive coastal development. Is it listed as Critically Endangered. More research is needed to determine this status of this species population in Thailand, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Viet Nam.
|Range Description:||This species has a very limited patchy distribution. It has been known to be previously present in South Asia in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Singapore. However, current estimates of known individuals are only from Singapore, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea. In Australasia it is found in Papua New Guinea (Frodin et al. 1982, Percival and Womersley 1975), and there are reports that it is also found in Timika and Bintuni Bay, Irian Jaya (S.Sukardjo pers. comm.).|
Native:Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Singapore
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species has a very small population and is naturally rare. It has a total known population of approximately 200 trees including:
80 trees in Malaysia (S. Tan, pers. comm.)
3 trees in Singapore
120 trees west Papua, Papua New Guinea.
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the intermediate estuarine zone in the high intertidal region (Robertson and Alongi 1992). It has very low rates of propagation and low rates of germination. It takes 18 months to go through maturation cycle. It can grow up to 30 m tall.|
This species has very low rates of propagation and low rates of germination. It is threatened by extensive coastal development within its range, especially as it occurs primarily in back mangrove areas. There has been at least a 27% loss of mangrove area in countries within this species range between 1980 and 2005 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||This species is currently being studied for propagation techniques. It is recommended that protected areas be made for its habitat and active planning for its conservation take place. More research is needed to determine this species population status in other countries within its presumed range.|
Duke, N. C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Ellison, J.C. 1995. Systematics and Distributions of Pacific Island Mangroves. In: J.E. Maragos, M.N.A. Peterson, L.G. Eldredge, J.E. Bardach and H.F. Takeuchi (eds), Marine and Coastal Biodiversity in the Tropical Island Pacific Region, pp. 59-74. East-West Center, Honolulu, USA.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
Frodin, D.G., Huxley, C.R. and Kirina, K.W. 1982. Mangroves of the Port Moresby Region. University of Papua New Guinea, Port Morseby.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Percival, M. and Womersley, J.S. 1975. Florisics and ecology of the mangrove vegetation of Papua New Guinea. In: Dept. of Forests Division of Botany, (ed.), Botany Bull. no 8. Lae.
Primavera, J.H. 2000. Development and conservation of Philippine mangroves: institutional issues. Ecological Economics 35(1): 91.
Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
Tomlinson, P.B. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, New York.
|Citation:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Bruguiera hainesii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 July 2014.|