|Scientific Name:||Acanthurus leucocheilus|
|Species Authority:||Herre, 1927|
Acanthurus leuocheilus Herre, 1927
Acanthurus leuococheilus Herre, 1927
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., McIlwain, J., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Davidson, L., Edgar, G. & Kulbicki, M.|
Acanthurus leucocheilus is widely distributed and found occasionally in most parts of its range. It is not specifically targeted and is found within Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Acanthurus leucocheilus is widespread in the Indo-Pacific and is found from the Philippines and Indonesia, eastwards to Tuvalu and the Line Islands and westwards to East Africa including Maldives and Seychelles.|
Native:Australia (Ashmore-Cartier Is.); British Indian Ocean Territory; Christmas Island; Djibouti; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Kenya; Kiribati (Kiribati Line Is.); Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mozambique; Myanmar; Niue; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Seychelles; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Acanthurus leucocheilus was recorded as occasional in most parts of its range (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010). It is moderately common at Raja Ampat, Indonesia (Allen 2003b). It is uncommon in the American Samoa National Park (National Park of Samoa Checklist of Fishes accessed 21 April 2010). Visual census surveys along Aceh coast of Indonesia recorded fish densities of 6 individuals/750 m2 at Pantai sirkui, 9 individuals/750 m2 at Teupin Layeu and 11 individuals/750 m2 at Teluk Pelabuhan (FMIPA 2007).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Acanthurus leucocheilus occurs singly or in small groups, generally in outer reef areas from about 5 to at least 30 m (Randall 2001a). It grazes over sand and feeds on a combination of algae and detritus (Choat 1991, Choat et al. 2002). It is classified as a grazer/detritivore (Green and Bellwood 2009). The sexes are separate among the acanthurids (Reeson 1983). Acanthurids do not display obvious sexual dimorphism, males assume courtship colours (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010).|
|Use and Trade:||Acanthurus leucocheilus is a component of the marine aquarium trade. It is sold online for $169.95 to $449.95 depending on size (bluezooaquatics.com, accessed 20 April 2010). It is a targeted food fish in western Thailand (Allen 2005). It is found in fish markets in Palawan, Philippines (Conales pers. comm. 2010).|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species' populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas in parts of its range.|
Allen, G.R. 2003b. Appendix 1. List of the Reef Fishes of the Raja Ampat Islands. In: R. Donnelly, D. Neville and P.J. Mous (eds), Report on a rapid ecological assessment of the Raja Ampat Islands, Papua, Eastern Indonesia, held October 30 – November 22, 2002. The Nature Conservancy - Southeast Asia Center for Marine Protected Areas, Sanur, Bali.
Allen, G.R. 2009. Coral Reef Fish Diversity. In: R. Hamilton, A. Green and J. Almany (eds), Rapid Ecological Assessment: Northern Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea. Technical Report of survey conducted August 13 to September 7, 2006. The Nature Conservancy, South Brisbane, Queensland.
Allen, M. 2005. A post-tsunami assessment of coral reef fin-fish resources on the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. In: Allen, G.R. and G.S. Stone (eds), Rapid Assessment Survey of Tsunami-affected Reefs of Thailand. Final Technical Report. November 15, 2005.
Blue Zoo Aquatics. 2010. Pale Lipped Surgeonfish. Available at: http://www.bluezooaquatics.com/productDetail.asp?did=1&cid=287&pid=824. (Accessed: 20 April).
Choat, J.H. 1991. Chapter 6. The biology of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs. In: Sale, P.F. (ed.), The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs, Academic Press, Sydney.
Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D. and Robbins, W.D. 2002. The trophic status of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs. 1. Dietary analyses. Marine Biology 140: 613-623.
Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., et al.. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039825.
Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science (FMIPA) University of Syiah Kuala. 2007. Community-drive coral conservation in Aceh, Indonesia. A Report to Rufford Small Grant (for Nature Conservation). The Rufford Small Grants Foundation.
Green, A.L. and Bellwood, D.R. 2009. Monitoring functional groups of herbivorous reef fishes as indicators of coral reef resilience – A practical guide for coral reef managers in the Asia Pacific region. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
National Park of American Samoa. 2008. Fishes of National Park of American Samoa Checklist of Fishes Family Name Listing. Available at: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/basch/uhnpscesu/htms/npsafish/family/acanthur.htm. (Accessed: 21 April).
Randall, J.E. 2001a. Surgeonfishes of the world. Mutual Publishing and Bishop Museum Press, Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Reeson, P.H. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the surgeonfishes, Acanthuridae. In: J.L. Munro (ed.), Caribbean coral reef fishery resources, pp. 178-190.
|Citation:||Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., McIlwain, J., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B. 2012. Acanthurus leucocheilus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 August 2015.|