Barbarea verna 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Capparales Brassicaceae

Scientific Name: Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.
Common Name(s):
English American Cress, American Winter Cress, Early Winter Cress, Land Cress, Normandy Cress, Upland Cress
French Cresson de Jardin
Spanish Berrillo, Berro Mastuerzo, Hierba de Santa Bárbara
Barbarea croatica Borbás & Vuk.
Barbarea praecox (Sm.) R. Br.
Barbarea praecox (Sm.) W. T. Aiton
Campe verna (Mill.) A. Heller
Erysimum vernum Mill.
Taxonomic Notes: Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch. is a primary wild relative of cultivated B. verna (Mill.) Asch. (land cress) and a wild relative of winter cress, B. vulgaris R. Br.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-03-24
Assessor(s): Kell, S.P.
Reviewer(s): Maxted, N. & Nieto, A.
Contributor(s): Hargreaves , S.

European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
EU 27 regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)

Barbarea verna is assessed as Data Deficient as there is currently insufficient information available to evaluate this species. Information about its precise distribution, habitat preferences, population size and trend  is needed, as well as its in situ conservation status and potential threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:B. verna is native to parts of central, southwest and southeast Europe (Marhold 2011). This species has been widely introduced to the rest of Europe where it has become naturalized (Rich 1991). The species is widespread in France, occurring in the majority of departments across the country with the exception of Lot-et-Garonne, Lot and Haute-Garonne to the south and 16 departments in the north (Association Tela Botanica 2000–2010). Further research is needed to gather information about the precise distribution of this species throughout the rest of its range.
Countries occurrence:
Croatia; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna); Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland))
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


Further research is needed to gather information about the population size and trend of this species.

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Further research is needed to gather information about the habitat of this species in its native range.


Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: B. verna is a wild relative of and potential gene donor to cultivated B. verna (land cress) and winter cress, B. vulgaris. An example of a trait of possible use for future breeding programs is its pest resistance to pollen beetle (Warwick et al. 2009). Research has also shown that B. verna, with winter hardiness, relatively large seeds and high seed yields, has the potential to become a new oilseed crop (Andersson et al. 1999).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Further research is needed to gather information about the potential threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The genus Barbarea is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture as part of the brassica complex.

EURISCO reports seven germplasm accessions of B. verna held in European genebanks, four of which are reported to be of wild or weedy origin. Of the wild accessions, two originate from within Europe—one from Austria and the other from Spain (EURISCO Catalogue 2010). Further germplasm collection and duplicated ex situ storage is a priority for this species.

Classifications [top]

0. Root -> 18. Unknown
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

♦  Other (free text)

Bibliography [top]

Andersson, A.A.M., Merker, A. Nilsson, P., Sørensen, H. and Åman, P. 1999. Chemical composition of the potential new oilseed crops Barbarea vulgaris, Barbarea verna and Lepidium campestre. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 179–186.

Association Tela Botanica. 2000–2010. Le reseau de la botanique francophone. Available at: (Accessed: August 2010).

EURISCO. 2015. EURISCO Catalogue release 1.1.16. Available at:

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2017).

Izquierdo, I., Martín, J.L., Zurita, N. and Arechavaleta, M. (eds.). 2004. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) 2004. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial, Gobierno de Canarias.

Marhold, K. 2011. Brassicaceae. In: Euro+Med Plantbase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Berlin. Available at: (Accessed: 28 February 2011).

Rich, T.C.G. 1991. Crucifers of Great Britain and Ireland. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London.

Warwick, S.L., Francis, A. and Gugel, R.K. 2009. Part IV: Wild crucifer species as sources of agronomic traits. In: Warwick, S.L., Francis, A. and Gugel, R.K. (eds), Guide to Wild Germplasm: Brassica and allied crops (tribe Brassiceae, Brassicaceae) 3rd Edition, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Ottowa.

Citation: Kell, S.P. 2011. Barbarea verna. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T176430A7239948. . Downloaded on 18 June 2018.
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