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Halodule pinifolia 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Najadales Cymodoceaceae

Scientific Name: Halodule pinifolia
Species Authority: (Miki) Hartog
Common Name(s):
English Species code: Hp
Taxonomic Notes: Halodule pinifolia is sometimes confused with Halodule uninervis.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-10-17
Assessor(s): Short, F.T., Williams, S.L., Carruthers, T.J.R., Waycott, M., Kendrick, G.A., Fourqurean, J.W., Callabine, A., Kenworthy, W.J. & Dennison, W.C.
Reviewer(s): Livingstone, S., Harwell, H. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
Halodule pinifolia is widespread and common although the population is most likely to be decreasing due to a number of localized threats throughout its range. This species is fast growing and can recolonize areas if removed. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Halodule pinifolia has a wide distribution in the Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. In the Pacific, it is found in southern Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, throughout the Gulf of Thailand and along the coast of Vietnam and southern China. It occurs throughout insular Southeast Asia northeast to the Northern Mariana Islands and southeast to the Fiji Islands, as well as across northern Australia. In the Indian Ocean, it is found from mid-Western Australia to the Timor Sea, the south coast of Indonesia, to the Andaman Sea and extending around the Bay of Bengal to the Coromandel Coast of India.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Australia; China; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Japan; Malaysia; Micronesia, Federated States of ; New Caledonia; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):7
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Halodule pinifolia is a common species and relatively widespread. The trends in population are variable and most likely declining overall. Populations can be affected by heavy grazing by dugong in Australia.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Halodule pinifolia forms homogenous patches in intertidal places or occasionally intermixed with other seagrasses (Skelton and South 2006). Halodule pinifolia grows in sandy or muddy sand substrates from upper littoral to subtidal areas. It is ephemeral with rapid turn-over and high seed set, and is well adapted to high levels of disturbance. This species is can grow rapidly and is a fast coloniser. Often heavily epiphytised.
Systems:Marine
Generation Length (years):3

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Fertilizer in India

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Halodule pinifolia is affected by a number of threats throughout its range. Coastal development is the most prominent threat. This species is also susceptible to increasing temperatures due to climate change as it is a shallow-living species. Other localized threats are trawling, reduced water quality, siltation and sedimentation and aquaculture.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species specific conservation measures for this species. It is found in some marine protected areas throughout its range. Monitoring of the population status is recommended for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.5. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.6. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Muddy
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.2. Back Slope
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.4. Lagoon
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.5. Inter-Reef Soft Substrate
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.10. Marine Neritic - Estuaries
suitability: Suitable  
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.2. Marine Intertidal - Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc
suitability: Suitable  
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.4. Marine Intertidal - Mud Flats and Salt Flats
suitability: Suitable  
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.6. Marine Intertidal - Tidepools
suitability: Suitable  
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.7. Marine Intertidal - Mangrove Submerged Roots
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.4. Marine & freshwater aquaculture -> 2.4.3. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.3. Temperature extremes
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Other (free text)

Bibliography [top]

Green, E.P. and Short, F.T. 2003. World Atlas of Seagrasses. University of California Press, Berkeley.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Skelton, P.A. and South, G.R. 2006. Seagrass biodiversity of the Fiji and Samoa islands, South Pacific. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40: 345-356.


Citation: Short, F.T., Williams, S.L., Carruthers, T.J.R., Waycott, M., Kendrick, G.A., Fourqurean, J.W., Callabine, A., Kenworthy, W.J. & Dennison, W.C. 2010. Halodule pinifolia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T173327A6991467. . Downloaded on 27 July 2016.
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