Short, F.T., Williams, S.L., Carruthers, T.J.R., Waycott, M., Kendrick, G.A., Fourqurean, J.W., Callabine, A., Kenworthy, W.J. & Dennison, W.C.
Livingstone, S., Harwell, H. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification: Halodule pinifolia is widespread and common although the population is most likely to be decreasing due to a number of localized threats throughout its range. This species is fast growing and can recolonize areas if removed. It is listed as Least Concern.
Halodule pinifolia has a wide distribution in the Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. In the Pacific, it is found in southern Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, throughout the Gulf of Thailand and along the coast of Vietnam and southern China. It occurs throughout insular Southeast Asia northeast to the Northern Mariana Islands and southeast to the Fiji Islands, as well as across northern Australia. In the Indian Ocean, it is found from mid-Western Australia to the Timor Sea, the south coast of Indonesia, to the Andaman Sea and extending around the Bay of Bengal to the Coromandel Coast of India.
Australia; China; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Japan; Malaysia; Micronesia, Federated States of ; New Caledonia; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Halodule pinifolia is a common species and relatively widespread. The trends in population are variable and most likely declining overall. Populations can be affected by heavy grazing by dugong in Australia.
Halodule pinifolia forms homogenous patches in intertidal places or occasionally intermixed with other seagrasses (Skelton and South 2006). Halodule pinifolia grows in sandy or muddy sand substrates from upper littoral to subtidal areas. It is ephemeral with rapid turn-over and high seed set, and is well adapted to high levels of disturbance. This species is can grow rapidly and is a fast coloniser. Often heavily epiphytised.
Halodule pinifolia is affected by a number of threats throughout its range. Coastal development is the most prominent threat. This species is also susceptible to increasing temperatures due to climate change as it is a shallow-living species. Other localized threats are trawling, reduced water quality, siltation and sedimentation and aquaculture.
There are no species specific conservation measures for this species. It is found in some marine protected areas throughout its range. Monitoring of the population status is recommended for this species.
Green, E.P. and Short, F.T. 2003. World Atlas of Seagrasses. University of California Press, Berkeley.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Skelton, P.A. and South, G.R. 2006. Seagrass biodiversity of the Fiji and Samoa islands, South Pacific. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40: 345-356.
Short, F.T., Williams, S.L., Carruthers, T.J.R., Waycott, M., Kendrick, G.A., Fourqurean, J.W., Callabine, A., Kenworthy, W.J. & Dennison, W.C. 2010. Halodule pinifolia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T173327A6991467. . Downloaded on 14 February 2016.
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