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Gonepteryx cleobule 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Lepidoptera Pieridae

Scientific Name: Gonepteryx cleobule
Species Authority: (Hübner, 1825)
Common Name(s):
English Canary Brimstone
Taxonomic Notes: The Canary Brimstone used to be considered a subspecies of the Cleopatra (G. cleopatra).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-01-29
Assessor(s): van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J.
Reviewer(s): Lewis, O. (Butterfly RLA) & Cuttelod, A. (IUCN Red List Unit)
Justification:
The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this endemic butterfly is less than 5,000 km² (but larger than 100 km²), the number of locations is fewer than ten and it has a continuing decline. Therefore it is classified as Vulnerable at the global, European and the EU27 level.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Canary Brimstone occurs in the Canary Islands at elevations between 1,000-1,500 m, sometimes up to 2,000 m. In winter it also occurs at lower elevations. This is a European endemic species.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Spain (Canary Is.)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a local species, restricted to (semi-) natural areas. Population declines have been estimated at 10%.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This butterfly can be seen in laurel forests on the north sides of the mountains, but also in other types of forests; they are very mobile and can be seen far away from their reproduction sites. The caterpillars feed on Rhamnus glandulosa and R. crenulata. It is not known how many generations a year are on the wing. Detailed habitat descriptions are not available.
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: All butterflies are collected to some extent, but only for the extremely rare species it can be a problem and the trade in Europe is generally at a low level compared to other continents. There is no specific trade information for this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This is a European endemic with a restricted range. The survival of the species is bound to its habitat, the laurel forest, which is still threatened although a part is legally protected. The main threats for laurel forests on the Canary Islands are tourist resorts and illegal building destroying part of the habitats, especially alongside roads or near settlements. Fires are another significant threat. Accidentally and intentionally set for livestock grazing, crop planting, timber and real estate speculation are also impacting the laurel forest.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in a number of protected areas across its range. Since it has a restricted global range, its distribution and trend should be monitored closely, for example by a Butterfly Monitoring Scheme.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.3. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.4. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.1). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 March 2010).

Ziegler, H. & Jost, B. 1990. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Biologie sowie Beschreibung der ersten Stände von Gonepteryx eversi Rehnelt, 1974 (Lep., Pieridae). Atalanta 21: 109-119.


Citation: van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. 2010. Gonepteryx cleobule. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T173223A6976222. . Downloaded on 30 June 2016.
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