|Scientific Name:||Calumma nasutum|
|Species Authority:||(Duméril & Bibron, 1836)|
Camaeleon nasutus Duméril & Bibron, 1836
|Taxonomic Notes:||The identity of Calumma linotum, a nasutum-group member described from the imprecise locality "Madagascar", is particularly unclear. Raxworthy et al. (2008) applied the name "Calumma cf. linota" to a population from Tsaratanana, but without comment and the justification for this assignment is therefore unclear. Gehring et al. (2012) likewise associated this name with a form from northern Madagascar, within the morphologically distinct boettgerigroup. This entire group is in need of fundamental taxonomic revision (Andreone et al. 2009), and Gehring et al. (2012) identified two clades within their C. linotum alone. Pending resolution of the complex systematics of this group, and given uncertainty about the correct attribution of the name C. linotum to northern Madagascan populations, this taxon is provisionally considered a synonym of an undetermined species within the nastum group, likelyC. boettgeri (F. Glaw pers. comm. to P. Uetz 2014, Uetz and Hallerman 2014).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griffiths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bowles, P. & Tolley, K.|
Listed as Least Concern as the species is widespread in the eastern part of Madagascar, it is found in a large number of protected areas, and its ability to survive in heavily disturbed and degraded forest suggests that it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to warrant listing in a more threatened category. This species is however in need of taxonomic revision, and if it is found to be considerably less widespread than is currently recognized it should be reassessed.
|Range Description:||This chameleon is endemic to the island of Madagascar, and is distributed throughout a wide area (estimated at 201,439 km²) in the humid eastern part of the country (Glaw and Vences 2007). It occurs between 320 and 1,350 m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species was reported in relatively low abundance in Andohahela, where it was thought to compete with Brookesia nasus (Andreone and Randriamahazo 1997). Population density estimates for the nose-horned chameleon vary between 6.2 and 33.4 animals per ha (Brady and Griffiths 1999). Adult density was reported to be higher in disturbed than undisturbed forest (Brady and Griffiths 1999), and from this and the loss and degradation of humid forest throughout its range it can be inferred that the population is declining.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is associated with humid forest, but has been recorded in a wide range of vegetation types. It has been found in a pine plantation in the north (Raxworthy and Nussbaum 1994), and degraded roadside forest and regenerating farmland in the east (Brady and Griffiths 1999, Rabearivony et al. 2008). Nevertheless, this species appears to require the presence of some native forest vegetation. Adults were more abundant in the austral summer in a lowland forest, whilst higher abundance was recorded in the austral winter at elevations of around 950 m (Brady and Griffiths 1999, Jenkins et al. 1999, Rabearivony et al. 2008). Gravid females and hatchlings were found during the early austral summer (November-December) in Ranomafana, Andranomay and Mantadia (Brady and Griffiths 1999).
|Use and Trade:||This species is not recorded in international trade.|
|Major Threat(s):||The loss and degradation of humid forest as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture impacts this species, and fire damage resulting from this activity may lead to localized reductions in population densities. However, because it appears to be rather tolerant of disturbance agriculture probably doesn't represent a major threat at this stage.|
|Conservation Actions:||This is a very widespread species that is present in most protected areas in the east of Madagascar. The taxonomy of this and similar species is in urgent need of revision.|
Andreone, F. and Randriamahazo, H. 1997. Ecological and taxonomic observations on the amphibians and reptiles of the Andohahela low altitude rainforest, S. Madagascar. Revue fr. Aquariol 24: 95-128.
Andreone, F., Glaw, F., Mattioli, F., Jesu, R., Schimmenti, G., Randrianirina, J.E. and Vences, M. 2009. The peculiar herpetofauna of some Tsaratanana rainforests and its affinities with Manongarivo and other massifs and forests of northern Madagascar. Italian Journal of Zoology 76: 92-110.
Brady, L.D. and Griffiths, R.A. 1999. Status Assessment of Chameleons in Madagascar. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Gehring, P.S., Tolley, K.A., Eckhardt, F.S., Townsend, T.M., Ziegler, T., Ratsoavina, F., Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2012. Hiding deep in the trees: discovery of divergent mitochondrial lineages in Malagasy chameleons of the Calumma nasutum. Ecology and Evolution 2(7): 1468-1479.
Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Jenkins, R.K.B., Brady, L.D., Huston, K., Kauffmann, J.L.D., Rabearivony, J., Raveloson, G. and Rowcliffe, M. 1999. The population status of chameleons within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Oryx 33: 38-47.
Rabearivony, J., Brady, L.D., Jenkins, R.K B. and Ravohangimalala, O.R. 2008. Habitat use and abundance of a low-altitude chameleon assemblage in eastern Madagascar. Herpetological Journal 17: 247-254.
Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 1994. A rainforest survey of amphibians, reptiles and small mammals of Montagne d'Ambre, Madagascar. Biological Conservation 69: 65-73.
Raxworthy, C.J., Pearson, R.G., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotondrazafy, A.M., Ramanamanjato, J.-B., Raselimanana, A.P., Wu, S., Nussbaum, R.A. and Stone, D.A. 2008. Extinction vulnerability of tropical montane endemism from warming and upslope displacement: a preliminary appraisal for the highest massif in Madagascar. Global Change Biology 14(8): 1-18.
Uetz, P. annd Hallerman, J. 2014. The Reptile Database: Calumna nasutum (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1836). Available at: http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Calumma&species=nasutum&search_param=%28%28search%3D%27Calumma+nasutum%27%29%29. (Accessed: 20 August 2014).
|Citation:||Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Brady, L., Glaw, F., Griffiths, R.A., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E. 2011. Calumma nasutum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
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