|Scientific Name:||Allium schoenoprasum L.|
Allium alpinum Hegetschw.
Allium foliosum DC.
Allium gredense Rivas Goday
Allium montanum Schrank
Allium purpurascens Losa
Allium riparium Opiz
|Taxonomic Notes:||Allium schoenoprasum L. is a tertiary wild relative of a number of crops in the Allium group, including Onion (A. cepa L.), Welsh Onion (A. fistulosum L.), Leek (A. porrum L.) and Garlic (A. sativum L.) (Friesen et al. 2006, USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2013).
Two subspecies are native to Europe: A. schoenoprasum subsp. alpinum (DC.) Čelak. and A. schoenoprasum L. subsp. schoenoprasum (Euro+Med PlantBase 2006); these are primary wild relatives of Chives.
Three subspecies are recognized in Iberia: A. schoenoprasum subsp. orosiae, A. schoenoprasum subsp. latiorifolium and A. schoenoprasum subsp. schoenoprasum.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Maxted, N. & Rhodes, L.|
|Contributor(s):||Kell, S.P., Kik, C., Draper Munt, D., Korpelainen, H., Eliáš, P., Labokas, J., Smekalova, T., Tavares, M., Strajeru, S., Magos Brehm, J. & Bulińska, Z.|
Allium schoenoprasum is a widespread species that is suspected to be stable through much of its range and is also present with reproducing populations in protected areas in Europe, Russia, North America and China. It is also conserved ex situ, however, some areas within the species' range may be under-represented in germplasm collections and so further collection and back-up storage of germplasm material is recommended. Due to this species' threatened status in some regions, national level monitoring is also recommended (Kell et al. 2013).
|Range Description:||Allium schoenoprasum is native to many parts of northern, middle, east, southeastern and southwestern Europe, as well as temperate Asia, Canada, the USA, India and Pakistan (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2010).|
As identified by Kell et al. (2013), information on the distribution of this species is available for the following countries:
Native:Albania; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bulgaria; Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland I, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); China (Xinjiang); Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Georgia; Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Liechtenstein; Mongolia; Netherlands; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Altay, Buryatiya, Central Asian Russia, Chechnya, Chita, Dagestan, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia, Ingushetiya, Irkutsk, Kabardino-Balkariya, Kamchatka, Karachaevo-Cherkessiya, Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, North European Russia, Primoryi, Severo-Osetiya, Stavropol, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia); Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland); United States (Alaska, Colorado, Connecticut, Idaho, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming)
Present - origin uncertain:Ireland; Latvia; Lithuania; Portugal (Portugal (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Allium schoenoprasum has a stable population trend in Slovakia and is noted as common where it is found in Germany and Norway (Kell et al. 2013). In the United States this species Critically Imperiled in Colorado, New Hampshire and Vermont, Imperiled in Michigan and Minnesota and Apparently Secure in Montana and Wyoming (NatureServe 2013). In Canada it is reported to be Imperiled in Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia and Apparently Secure in Yukon, Manitoba and Ontario; it is not ranked throughout the rest of its North American Range (NatureServe 2013). Further research is needed to gather information about the population size and trend throughout the rest of this species' range, however given the widespread nature of this species global population is suspected to be stable.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
In Europe A. schoenoprasum subsp. schoenoprasum grows along river banks and in wet meadows, while A. schoenoprasum subsp. alpinum occurs in alpine grasslands, on rocky ledges, in crevices and dry places with little soil (Kell et al. 2013).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Use and Trade:||
Allium schoenoprasum, commonly known as Chives, is a widely cultivated species. In Europe the young leaves are appreciated as an early vitamin source in the spring and are used as a condiment for salads and sauces (Rabinowitch and Currah 2002, Kell et al. 2013).
A. schoenoprasum subsp. alpinum and A. schoenoprasum subsp. schoenoprasum are primary wild relatives of and potential gene donors to Chives. The species is also a tertiary wild relative of and potential gene donor to a number of other crops in the Allium group, including Onion A. cepa L., Welsh Onion A. fistulosum L., Leek A. porrum L. and Garlic A. sativum L (Friesen et al. 2006, USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2013, Kell et al. 2013). It is also documented to be a cold-tolerant species by Chukhina (2009).
In Finland, Allium schoenoprasum subsp. alpinum is threatened by habitat destruction through tourism and has been classified as Near Threatened (almost meeting VU D2). This species is also known to have been threatened in the Netherlands by the modification of river dunes (Mennema et al. 1985). Threats across the rest of this species' range remain unknown.
According to Kell et al. (2013), knowledge of this species' national threat status in Europe is as follows:
This species is documented to be present in the following protected areas (Information Center for the Environment (ICE) 2013):
EURISCO reports 174 germplasm accessions held in European genebanks, 76 of which are reported to be of wild or weedy origin. Of the wild accessions, 73 originate from within Europe. The majority of these wild accessions originate from Sweden (40) (EURISCO Catalogue 2010).
Association Tela Botanica. 2000–2010. Le reseau de la botanique francophone. Available at: http://www.tela-botanica.org/.
Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI). 2013. Plant search. Available at: http://www.bgci.org/plant_search.php/. (Accessed: 21/02/2013).
Choi, H.J., Jang, C.G., Ko, S.C. and Oh, B.U. 2004. Two new taxa of Allium (Alliaceae) from Korea; A. koreanum H.J.Choi et B.U.Oh and A. thunbergii var. teretifolium H.J.Choi et B.U.Oh. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 34: 75–85.
Choi, J.H. and Oh, B.U. 2011. A partial revision of Allium (Amaryllidaceae) in Korea and north-eastern China. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 167(2): 153–211.
Chukhina, I.G. 2008. Allium altaicum. Available at: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/related/Allium_altaicum/index.html. (Accessed: 05 June 2013).
Dostál, J. and Červenka, M. 1992. Veľký kľúč na určovanie vyšších rastlín II. SPN, Bratislava.
EURISCO Catalogue. 2010. http://eurisco.ecpgr.org.
Friesen, N., Fritsch, R.M. and Blattner, F.R. 2006. Phylogeny and New Intrageneric Classification of Allium (Alliaceae) based on Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ITS Sequences. Aliso 22: 372–395.
ICE. 2013. Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas. Information Centre for the Environment, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis and Collaborators. Available at: http://www.ice.ucdavis.edu/bioinventory/bioinventory.html.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Kell, S.P., Draper, D., Bulińska, Z., Korpelainen, H., Magos Brehm, J., Labokas, J., Eliaš, P., Smekalova, T., Strajeru, S. and Tavares, M. 2013. Allium schoenoprasum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T172256A6858626.
Mennema, J., Quene-Boterenbrood, A.J. and Plate, C.L. 1985. Atlas van de Nederlandse Flora. Deel 1, 2 & 3. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
NatureServe. 2013. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Arlington, Virginia Available at: http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed: February, 2014).
Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. and Dines, T.D. 2002. New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Rabinowitch, H.D. and Currah, L. 2002. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
SGSV Data Portal. Available at: http://www.nordgen.org/sgsv. (Accessed: 14th January 2013).
USDA. 2010. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl.
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network ‒ (GRIN) [Online Database]. Available at: www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl.
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network – (GRIN) [Online Database]. Beltsville, Maryland Available at: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/search.aspx. (Accessed: 17 February).
Wind, P. and Pihl, S. 2010. Den Danske Rødliste. Available at: redlist.dmu.dk. (Accessed: September 2010).
|Citation:||Maxted, N. & Rhodes, L. 2016. Allium schoenoprasum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T172256A19391728.Downloaded on 19 February 2018.|
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