|Scientific Name:||Scomber australasicus|
|Species Authority:||Cuvier, 1832|
Scomber antarcticus Castelnau, 1872
Scomber tapeinocephalus Bleeker, 1854
|Taxonomic Notes:||Populations in the Red Sea and the northern Indian Ocean formerly considered to be Scomber japonicus have been re-identified as Scomber australasicus (Baker and Collette 1998). Microsatellite and mitochondrial cyt b confirm that Scomber australasicus and S. japonicus are separate species (Tseng et al. 2009).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Collette, B., Acero, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., Chang, S.-K., Chiang, W., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Guzman-Mora, A., Juan Jorda, M., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Salas, E., Schaefer, K., Serra, R., Sun, C., Uozumi, Y., Wang, S., Wu, J., Yanez, E. & Yeh, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.|
This species is found primarily in the northwest and southwest Pacific Ocean. In the northwest Pacific, estimated spawning stock biomass for at least one stock is increasing, while for the other stock it is fluctuating, but relatively stable. It is listed as Least Concern. However, more information on the status of this species population in other parts of its range is recommended.
|Range Description:||This species is present in the western Pacific from China and Japan to Australia and New Zealand, extending east to the Hawaiian Islands. In the Eastern Pacific it is a resident only in the Revillagigedo Islands. It also occurs in the Red Sea. It is relatively rare in tropical waters.|
Native:Australia; China; Indonesia; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Mexico; New Zealand; Oman; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Somalia; Taiwan, Province of China
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There are important fisheries for this species in Japan, Australia, and New Zealand but no catch data has been identified for this species in these countries (Collette and Nauen 1983). Some reported landings for this species may be mixed with S. japonicus. However, the majority of the reported worldwide catch is from New Zealand (FAO 2009).
In Japan and the Tsushima Current spawning stock biomass for the Pacific Stock has been estimated to be steadily since 1995 from 50,000 to 150,000 tonnes with a peak of 300,000 tonnes in 2006 (Watanabe pers comm 2009). Estimated spawning stock biomass for the East China Sea fluctuates between 40,000 to 80,000 tonnes from 1992 to 2007 (Watanabe pers comm 2009).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This pelagic and oceanodromous species occurs in coastal waters (Collette 1995) and also in oceanic waters (May and Maxwell 1986) to depths of 300 m. This species schools by size, and schools may include Jack Mackerels and Pacific sardines. They are plankton feeders, filtering copepods and other crustaceans, but adults also feed on small fishes and squids.
This species has an age of first maturity of two years (Stevens et al. 1984), and longevity is eight years in Australia (Stevens et al. 1984). However, this species is larger and longer lived in New Zealand, where longevity has been estimated to be as high as 24 years (Morrison et al. 2001) and length of first maturity is 28 cm (approximately three years) (Manning et al. 2007). In Japan, this species has an age of first maturity of one year and the longevity is approximately six years (Uozumi pers comm. 2009).
Generation length in Japan, is therefore estimated to be 2–3 years, however it may be higher in Australia and New Zealand.
Maximum Size is 40 cm fork length (FL). The all-tackle angling record is of a 1.36 kg fish caught off Kochi, Japan in 2000 (IGFA 2011).
|Use and Trade:||This species is important in many commercial fisheries within its range.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is caught with encircling nets (Collette 1995) in some parts of its range. In Japan, this species has a lower price than S. japonicus which is considered to have a better taste (Uozumi pers comm 2009).|
|Conservation Actions:||In Taiwan, this species and Scomber japonicus can only be caught by eight sets of purse-seine vessels. In New Zealand and Australia, there are recreational bag limits and catch limits for all mackerel species. More information on the status of the stock in other parts of this species range is recommended.|
Baker, E. and B.B. Collette. 1998. Mackerel from the northern Indian Ocean and the Red Sea are Scomber australisicus, not Scomber japonicus. Ichthyol. Res. 45(1): 29-33.
Collette, B.B. 1995. Scombridae. Atunes, bacoretas, bonitos, caballas, estorninos, melva, etc. In: W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter, V.H. Niem (ed.), Guia para la identification de especies para los fines de la pesca, Pacifio Centro-Oriental, pp. 1521-1543. FAO, Rome.
Collette, B.B. and Nauen, C.E. 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World: an annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Fisheries Synopsis number 125, volume 2.
FAO. 2009. FishStat Plus Version 2.32. Universal Software for Fishery Statistics Time Series. Available at: www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstat/en.
IGFA. 2014. International Game Fish Association World Record Game Fishes. Three Kings, New Zealand.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Manning, M.J., Devine, J.A. and Marriot, P.M. 2007. The length and age composition of the commercial catch of blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) in EMA 1 & 7 during the 2004-05 fishing year. New Zealand fisheries assessment report 2007/35.
Matsui T. 1967. Review of the mackerel genera Scomber and Rastrelliger with description of a new species of Rastrelliger. Copeia 1967: 71-89.
May, J.L. and Maxwell, J.G.H. 1986. Trawl fish from temperate waters of Australia. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research, Tasmania, Australia.
Morrison, M.A.,Taylor, P.R. and Marriott, P.M. 2001. An assessment of information on blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) stocks. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2001/44.
Scoles, D.R., Collette, B.B. and Graves, J.E. 1998. Global phylogeography of Mackerels of the genus Scomber. Fishery Bulletin 96: 823-842.
Stevens, J.D., Hansfield, H.F.and Davenport, S.R. 1984. Observations on the biology, distribution and abundance of Trachurus declivis, Sardinops neopilchardus and Scomber australasicus in the Great Australian Bight. Report - CSIRO Marine Laboratories 164: 27 p.
Tzeng C-H. 2007. Population structure of the spotted mackerel (Scomber australasicus) off Taiwan inferred from mitochondrial control region sequencing. Zool. Stud. 46(6): 656-663.
Tzeng C-H, Chen C-S, Tang P-C, Chiu T-S. 2009. Microsatellite and mitochondrial haplotype differentiation in blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) from the western Pacific. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66: 816-825.
|Citation:||Collette, B., Acero, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., Chang, S.-K., Chiang, W., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Guzman-Mora, A., Juan Jorda, M., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Salas, E., Schaefer, K., Serra, R., Sun, C., Uozumi, Y., Wang, S., Wu, J., Yanez, E. & Yeh, S. 2011. Scomber australasicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 April 2015.|
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