|Scientific Name:||Scyllarus arctus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
Cancer arctus Linnaeus, 1758
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Butler, M., MacDiarmid, A., Wahle, R., Cockcroft, A. & Chan, T.Y.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collen, B., Livingstone, S. & Richman, N.|
|Contributor(s):||Batchelor, A., De Silva, R., Dyer, E., Kasthala, G., Lutz, M.L., McGuinness, S., Milligan, H.T., Soulsby, A.-M. & Whitton, F.|
Scyllarus arctus has a wide distribution. It is harvested throughout its range, and known to be over-exploited locally in some regions. Although there have been these declines, the ecological characteristics of slipper lobsters make them resistant to extinction as they are highly fecund with well connected populations via long-lived larvae. Monitoring of harvest levels should be carried out to check for possible increases in fishing, together with stricter enforcement of current management regimes. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed throughout the Mediterranean and in the Eastern Atlantic (Holthuis 1991). In the Eastern Atlantic, it is known from the south coast of the United Kingdom down to the Canary Islands, and includes the Azores and Madeira (Holthuis 1991).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt (Egypt (African part)); France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Guernsey; Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Jersey; Lebanon; Libya; Montenegro; Morocco; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal (Azores, Madeira, Portugal (mainland)); Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland), Spanish North African Territories); Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; United Kingdom (Great Britain); Western Sahara
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There is no overall population information available for this species. However, this species has experienced a local decline in Cape Creus, Spain, where it was previously caught in small quantities, but now it is considered to be 'very rare' (Linares 2008 in Lloret and Riera 2008). In contrast, it is described as one of the common marine species off the Lebanese coast (Majdalani 2004).
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found at depths of 4-50 m (Holthuis 1991). This species inhabits mud and rock substrates, but can also be found in fields of Posidonia species (Holthuis 1991). It has also been found in artificial reefs and areas designated to the 'protection of the Posidonia meadows from illegal trawling and, if possible, restore it to its past size' (Relini et al. 2007).|
|Use and Trade:||Although it is on sale at local markets, it is deemed not to be economically viable to commercially harvest this species (Holthuis 1991). This species can be caught in 'gill nets, trawls, dredges, traps and seines as by-catch and is also hand caught by divers (Hotlhuis 1991). Therefore the interest of this species to fisheries is classified as minor (Holthuis 1991). Historically this species has been harvested in 'small quantities' by artisan fishermen in Cape Creus, Spain, but is now described as 'very rare' (Linares 2008 in Lloret and Riera 2008).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened locally by habitat loss due to decreasing Posidonia fields, and also by over-fishing by hand in some areas (Holthuis 1991, Relini et al. 2007), but this is not considered a major threat to the species over its entire range.|
This species has been listed by the Council of Europe as a protected species in the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Council of Europe 1979).
Council of Europe. 1979. Convention On The Conservation Of European Wildlife And Natural Habitats. Bern.
de Haan, W. 1833-1850. Crustacea. In: de Siebold, P.F. (ed.), Fauna Japonica sive descriptio animalium, quae in itinere per Japoniam, jussu et auspiciis superiorum, qui summum in India Batava Imperium tentent, suscepto, annis 1823-1830 collegit, notis, observationibus et adumbrationibus illustravit:, pp. ix-xvi, vii-xvii, i-xxxi,1-243,.
Herbst, J.F.W. 1791-1796. Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der Krabben und Krebse nebst einer systematischen Beschreibung ihrer verschiedenen Arten.
Holthuis, L.B. 1977. Two new species of scyllarid lobsters (Crustacea Decapoda, Palinuridea) from Australia and the Kermadic Islands, New Zealand. Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden, 52: 191-200.
Holthuis, L.B. 1985. A revision of the family Scyllaridae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Macrura). I. Subfamily Ibacinae. Zoölogische Verhandelingen, Leiden, 218: 1-130.
Holthuis, L.B. 1991. Marine lobsters of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries known to date. FAO species catalogue 13(125). FAO, Rome.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).
Leach, W.E. 1814. Crustaceology. In: Brewster, D. (ed.), The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, pp. 383-437.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordinus, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Impensis Direct, Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.
Lloret J. and Riera V. 2008. Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus. Environmental Management 42: 977-988.
Lukis, F.C. 1835. Illustrations of a species? Phyllosòma Leach and Latreille, or of an undescribed genus allied to Phyllosòma; and of Squilla Desmaresii Risso; as observed in a living individual of each, taken on the coast of Guernsey. Magazine natural History 8: 459-464.
Majdalani, S. 2004. The present status of fishery and information system in Lebanon. MedFisis Technical Document No. 4.1:.
Relini, G., Relini M., Palandri, G., Merello, S. and Beccornia, E. 2007. History, ecology and trends for artificial reefs of the Ligurian sea, Italy. Hydrobiologia 580: 193?217.
Risso, A. 1816. Histoire naturelle des Crustacés des environs de Nice.
Risso, A. 1827. Histoire naturelle des pricipales productions de l'Europe méridionale. 5(i-vii): 1-403.
Sarato, C. 1885. Études sur les Crustacés de Nice. Genre Arctus, Dana; Sous-genre Nisto. Nob. Moniteur des etrangers de Nice 9(216): 3.
|Citation:||Butler, M., MacDiarmid, A., Wahle, R., Cockcroft, A. & Chan, T.Y. 2013. Scyllarus arctus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 July 2014.|