|Scientific Name:||Pygoplites diacanthus|
|Species Authority:||(Boddaert, 1772)|
Chaetodon diacanthus Boddaert, 1772
Holacanthus diacanthus (Boddaert, 1772)
|Taxonomic Notes:||The Pacific and Indian Ocean population of this species may eventually be regarded as distinct species based on differences in colour patterns and potential genetic differences (R. Pyle pers. comm. 2009).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, large overall population and no major threats.
|Range Description:||This species is widely distributed throughout the Indo-west and central Pacific, from the Red Sea to the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), northwards to the Ryukyu Islands (Japan) and south to New Caledonia (France). It is found at depths of 1-80 m.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; Christmas Island; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Guam; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati (Phoenix Is.); Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
It is a common species, with generally stable populations throughout its range.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Occurs in coral rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs to a depth of 80 m or more. Often found in the vicinity of caves and feeds on sponges and tunicates. Juveniles are cryptic, remaining well hidden in cracks and crevices. Solitary or in pairs, or in groups (Pyle 2001).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is commonly exported through the aquarium trade. It is mainly caught for export from the coastal waters of Manila (Philippines), Singapore and Sri Lanka (Steene 1978). It is a difficult species to maintain in captivity for any length of time, and often dies within six months (Steene 1978).|
While animals are collected extensively for the aquarium trade in some areas, this does appear to constitute a major threat to the species. There are no other major threats to the species.
There are no known species-specific conservations measure for this species, however its wide range includes several protected areas.
Adrim, M., Chen, I.-S., Chen, Z.-P., Lim, K.K.P., Tan, H.H., Yusof, Y. and Jaafar, Z. 2004. Marine fishes recorded from the Anambas and Natuna Islands, South China Sea. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. No. 11: 117-130.
Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.
Endoh, K. 2007. Angelfishes of the World. Two Little Fishies, Inc., Miami Gardens, Florida.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Pyle, R. 2001. Pomacanthidae: Angelfishes. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae), pp. 3266-3286. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Randall, J.E., Williams, J.T., Smith, D.G., Kulbicki, M., Tham, G.M., Labrosse, P., Kronen, M., Clua, E. and Mann, B.S. 2003. Checklist of the shore and epipelagic fishes of Tonga. Atoll Research Bulletin 502: 1-37.
Steene, R.C. 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. and A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia.
|Citation:||Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T. 2010. Pygoplites diacanthus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 November 2014.|
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