|Scientific Name:||Holacanthus ciliaris|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
Angelichthys iodocus (Jordan & Rutter, 1897)
Chaetodon ciliaris Linnaeus, 1758
Chaetodon parrae Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Chaetodon squamulosus Shaw, 1796
Holacanthus cornutus Desmarest, 1823
Holacanthus coronatus Desmarest, 1823
Holacanthus formosus Castelnau, 1855
Holacanthus iodocus Jordan & Rutter, 1897
Holacanthus lunatus Blosser, 1909
Holocanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758)
|Taxonomic Notes:||The entire population in Bermuda may consist of hybrids between this species and Holacanthus bermudensis (L. Rocha pers. comm. 2009).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
Even though this species is harvested in high numbers in Brazil, it is not harvested much in other parts of its range (including the Caribbean), and population numbers are apparently stable globally. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is known in the Western Atlantic, from Florida (USA) and Gulf of Mexico to Brazil, the Caribbean including Antilles and south American coast, and in the Eastern Central Atlantic at St. Paul's Rocks (Brazil). It occurs at 1-70 m in depth.|
Native:Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire); Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is common around shallow reefs in the Caribbean and Brazil.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Found on coral and rocky reefs. Generally occurs solitarily or in pairs. Stomach contents of 26 specimens indicate that the species feeds almost exclusively on sponges supplemented by small amounts of algae, tunicates, hydroids and bryozoans. The young pick ectoparasites from other fishes.|
|Use and Trade:||Not an important foodfish (but it is eaten). Mostly sought after as an aquarium fish, especially when young (Burgess 2002). This is the marine aquarium fish most frequently exported from Brazil. During a five year period (1995-2000), 43,730 individuals were exported from or commercialized in Brazil (Monteiro-Neto et al. 2003). The population at St. Paul's Rocks is genetically indistinguishable from normal H. ciliaris, but has unique and inconsistent colour patterns, which makes it very valuable to the aquarium trade.|
Collection by the aquarium trade is a local threat to some populations, however, there are no apparent major threats to the global population. The population at St. Paul's Rocks is potentially susceptible to overcollection. However, St. Paul's Rocks is a very isolated island, only accessible by boat, and is located 1,000 miles from the Brazilian coast. Thus, collection of specimens from this island is very expensive.
|Conservation Actions:||This species is present in numerous protected areas. A maximum quota of 10,000 specimens for export from Brazil has been established for this species, which exceeds the current collection levels.|
Allen, G.R. 1980. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Wiley, New York.
Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.
Carpenter, K.E. 2002. The living marine resource of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3 Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals. FAO, Rome.
Endoh, K. 2007. Angelfishes of the World. Two Little Fishies, Inc., Miami Gardens, Florida.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Monteiro-Neto, C., Cunha, F.E.A., Nottingham, M.C., Araújo, M.E., Rosa, I.L. and Barros, G.M.L. 2003. Analysis of the marine ornamental fish trade at Ceará State, northeast Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1287-1295.
|Citation:||Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T. 2010. Holacanthus ciliaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 October 2014.|
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